tuba, var. [42] When round-headed cabbages appeared in 14th-century England they were called cabaches and caboches, words drawn from Old French and applied at first to refer to the ball of unopened leaves,[43] the contemporaneous recipe that commences "Take cabbages and quarter them, and seethe them in good broth",[44] also suggests the tightly headed cabbage. A brief historical sketch is in Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat. Incidence, Growth, and Survival of Pathogens in Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce", "Cabbage Risk Assessment Introduction and Summary", "Nutritional epidemiology and thyroid hormone metabolism", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cabbage&oldid=996239071, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, Taxonbars using multiple manual Wikidata items, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. List of Lepidoptera that feed on Brassica, "Growing broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and other cole crops in Wisconsin", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2018", "Crops/Regions/World list/Production Quantity (pick lists), Cabbages and other brassicas, 2017", "Corriher's Compendium of Ingredients and Cooking Problems", "USDA database table for raw cabbage per 100 g", "A novel mechanism of indole-3-carbinol effects on breast carcinogenesis involves induction of Cdc25A degradation", "Chapter IV. Distribution. These receptors influence release of hormones involved in appetite regulation, such as peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1, and therefore may influence caloric intake and the development of obesity. Rhizoctonia solani causes the post-emergence disease wirestem, resulting in killed seedlings ("damping-off"), root rot or stunted growth and smaller heads. [67] In India, the diamondback moth has caused losses up to 90 percent in crops that were not treated with insecticide. It contains over 330 genera and about 3,700 species, according to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [68] Destructive soil insects include the cabbage root fly (Delia radicum) and the cabbage maggot (Hylemya brassicae), whose larvae can burrow into the part of plant consumed by humans. English: Potato Vine, Swamp Cabbage; Tagalog: Kangkong. [citation needed], The TAS2R38 gene encodes a G protein-coupled receptor that functions as a taste receptor, mediated by ligands such as PROP and phenylthiocarbamide that bind to the receptor and initiate signaling that confers various degrees of taste perception. [9] The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage. It is rich in essential nutrients including vitamin C. It has been bred into a wide range of cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts, collards, and kale, some of which are hardly recognizable as being members of the same genus, let alone species. [46] French naturalist Jean Ruel made what is considered the first explicit mention of head cabbage in his 1536 botanical treatise De Natura Stirpium, referring to it as capucos coles ("head-coles"). Cabbage centre grub, cabbage webworm. The Chinese cabbage was found in the deltaic region of the Yangtze River until the pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty Li Shizhen decided to study the medicinal properties of the vegetable. [12], Cabbage seedlings have a thin taproot and cordate (heart-shaped) cotyledons. [11] Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items, occupations and activities. Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, and a superior ovary that is two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. Brush. [5] Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head". By contrast, ornamental cabbages and kales are grown primarily as foliage plants for their intensely colored leaves rather than as vegetables. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). Basic research on cabbage phytochemicals is ongoing to discern if certain cabbage compounds may affect health or have potential for anti-disease effects, such as sulforaphane and other glucosinolates. It is recorded from Australia, New Zealand, and the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Revised continuously. Somewhere around the first century AD emerged the phenotype variation of, Phenotype selection preferences in Germany resulted in a new variation from the kale cultivar. [40], The characteristic flavor of cabbage is caused by glucosinolates, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Seedlings are destroyed by the caterpillars. For other uses, see, Leafy vegetable in the flowering plant family Brassicaceae, A whole white cabbage and a cross section. [48] In India, cabbage was one of several vegetable crops introduced by colonizing traders from Portugal, who established trade routes from the 14th to 17th centuries. The Greeks and Romans claimed medicinal usages for their cabbage varieties that included relief from gout, headaches and the symptoms of poisonous mushroom ingestion. [90] Shigella species are able to survive in shredded cabbage. Ornamental cabbage typ… [14] Closer spacing reduces the resources available to each plant (especially the amount of light) and increases the time taken to reach maturity. [32] By early Roman times, Egyptian artisans and children were eating cabbage and turnips among a wide variety of other vegetables and pulses. [47], In Istanbul, Sultan Selim III penned a tongue-in-cheek ode to cabbage: without cabbage, the halva feast was not complete. [52], Jacques Cartier first brought cabbage to the Americas in 1541–42, and it was probably planted by the early English colonists, despite the lack of written evidence of its existence there until the mid-17th century. [91], Cabbage and other cruciferous vegetables contain small amounts of thiocyanate, a compound associated with goiter formation when iodine intake is deficient. [14] Early varieties of cabbage take about 70 days from planting to reach maturity, while late varieties take about 120 days. [37] The Pompeii cabbage was also mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica. [85] Ancient Egyptians ate cooked cabbage at the beginning of meals to reduce the intoxicating effects of wine. Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. In contrast, individuals with two AVI haplotypes are bitter non-tasters. Introduction. Its leaves are bluish to green colored. [6] The historical genus of Crucifera, meaning "cross-bearing" in reference to the four-petaled flowers, may be the only unifying feature beyond taste. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. The Cabbage White is a species of very common white butterflies found everywhere in Asia and Europe, though their exact place of origin is yet unknown. The seeds, like any other cabbage, can be used for sprouting. Napa cabbage doesn't look like head cabbages; it has long, light green leaves that flower off of thick, white stalks. When stored under less ideal conditions, cabbage can still last up to four months. KangKong – Scientific name: Ipomea aquatica Torsk. oleracea), and belongs to the "cole crops" or brassicas, meaning it is closely related to broccoli and cauliflower (var. Oblate, round and pointed shapes are found. The preference for the eating of the leaves led to the selection of plants with larger leaves being harvested and their seeds planted for the next growth. Preference for leaves, terminal bud, lateral bud, stem, and inflorescence resulted in selection of varieties of wild cabbage into the many forms known today. [8] He reports the antipathy of the cabbage and the grape vine, for the ancients believed cabbages grown near grapes would impart their flavour to the wine. sabauda). [79] Cabbage is also a moderate source (10–19% DV) of vitamin B6 and folate, with no other nutrients having significant content per 100-gram serving (table). Several other cruciferous vegetables (sometimes known as cole crops[2]) are cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and sprouting broccoli. Cabbage is a dense, leafy vegetable that grows biennially in cool climates. The Chinese cabbage later became the staple vegetable of Korea. Necrotic spot is where there are oval sunken spots a few millimeters across that are often grouped around the midrib. The PAV haplotype is dominant; therefore, individuals with at least one copy of the PAV allele perceive molecules in vegetables that resemble PROP as tasting bitter, and consequently may develop an aversion to bitter vegetables. Ornamental plants were developed for ornamental use without regard to taste. [29], While unidentified brassicas were part of the highly conservative unchanging Mesopotamian garden repertory,[30] it is believed that the ancient Egyptians did not cultivate cabbage,[31] which is not native to the Nile valley, though the word shaw't in Papyrus Harris of the time of Ramesses III has been interpreted as "cabbage". Different varieties prefer different soil types, ranging from lighter sand to heavier clay, but all prefer fertile ground with a pH between 6.0 and 6.8. [9], A diet rich in cruciferous vegetables (e.g., cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) is linked to a reduced risk of several human cancers. [5] Cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with the First Fleet, and were planted the same year on Norfolk Island. View CABBAGE.pdf from BIOLOGY BIO270 at Universiti Teknologi Mara. In certain climates, cabbage can be planted at the beginning of the cold period and survive until a later warm period without being induced to flower, a practice that was common in the eastern US. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. [40][72], Cabbage is prepared and consumed in many ways. Back to genus Brassica; Plantopedia: Browse flowering plants by Scientific Name, Common Name, Genus, Family, USDA Hardiness Zone or Origin; Photo Gallery In temperate and sub-tropical regions, and also in the tropics at higher elevations. Cabbages are usually green, but they can als The cooling properties of the leaves were used in Britain as a treatment for trench foot in World War I, and as compresses for ulcers and breast abscesses. The appearance of the cabbage head has been given importance in selective breeding, with varieties being chosen for shape, color, firmness and other physical characteristics. Brassica oleracea is native to coastal southern and western Europe. Cabbage has anti-inflammatory properties. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. Bok-choy or "Chinese-cabbage" is a long cylindrical shaped leafy vegetable, comprising of short, compact leaves. [21][22], "Genotyping-by-sequencing of Brassica oleracea vegetables reveals unique phylogenetic patterns, population structure and domestication footprints", "Cruciferous vegetables and human cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence and mechanistic basis", "The extraordinary diversity of Brassica oleracea", "Vegetables - University of Saskatchewan", "Origin and Domestication of Cole Crops (Brassica oleracea L.): Linguistic and Literary Considerations1", "From landrace to modern hybrid broccoli: the genomic and morphological domestication syndrome within a diverse B. oleracea collection", "TAS2R38 predisposition to bitter taste associated with differential changes in vegetable intake in response to a community-based dietary intervention", Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, "Genetic, Functional, and Phenotypic Diversity in TAS2R38-Mediated Bitter Taste Perception", "Rare haplotypes of the gene TAS2R38 confer bitter taste sensitivity in humans", "The Molecular Basis of Individual Differences in Phenylthiocarbamide and Propylthiouracil Bitterness Perception", "TAS2R38 Predisposition to Bitter Taste Associated with Differential Changes in Vegetable Intake in Response to a Community-Based Dietary Intervention", "Vegetable Intake in College-Aged Adults Is Explained by Oral Sensory Phenotypes and TAS2R38 Genotype", "Variability in Human Bitter Taste Sensitivity to Chemically Diverse Compounds Can Be Accounted for by Differential TAS2R Activation", "Sensitivity of genome-wide-association signals to phenotyping strategy: the PROP-TAS2R38 taste association as a benchmark", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Brassica_oleracea&oldid=1000155899, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. A hardy plant in its uncultivated form, its high tolerance for salt and lime, and its intolerance of competition from other plants, typically restrict its natural occurrence to limestone sea cliffs, like the chalk cliffs on both sides of the English Channel,[2] and the windswept coast on the western side of the Isle of Wight. Americans consume 3.9 kg (8.6 lb) annually per capita. Brassica rapa recently replaced B. campestris as the scientific name, as this species is not botanically different from the turnip. [40] The antipathy towards the vine made it seem that eating cabbage would enable one to avoid drunkenness. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine. [22], Although cabbage has an extensive history,[23] it is difficult to trace its exact origins owing to the many varieties of leafy greens classified as "brassicas". [27], Cabbage was probably domesticated later in history than Near Eastern crops such as lentils and summer wheat. [13] Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg (1 and 8 lb), with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. History of Cabbage Cabbage is a plant under family group of Brassicaceae. These are small- to medium-sized butterflies found flying in numbers especially during the late spring and the summer months. [5] During the 16th century, German gardeners developed the savoy cabbage. [81] Cabbage is a source of indole-3-carbinol, a chemical under basic research for its possible properties. [15] Both hand and mechanical harvesting are used, with hand-harvesting generally used for cabbages destined for market sales. Vegetables in the brassica family, such as collard greens, kale, broccoli, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts, contain glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, which resemble PROP, and therefore much of the perceived "bitterness" of these vegetables is mediated through TAS2R38. Wild B. oleracea is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in the first year. [33] Ptolemaic Egyptians knew the cole crops as gramb, under the influence of Greek krambe, which had been a familiar plant to the Macedonian antecedents of the Ptolemies. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree (a member of the genus Andira) and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, Acrocomia and Euterpe oenocarpus. PAV and AVI haplotypes are the most common, though other haplotypes exist that confer intermediate bitter taste sensitivity (AAI, AAV, AVV, and PVI). Cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. Vacuum cooling rapidly refrigerates the vegetable, allowing for earlier shipping and a fresher product. CABBAGE SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Family : Brassicaceae/ Cruciferae Scientific … Cabbage was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. These include the heaviest cabbage, at 57.61 kilograms (127.0 lb),[19] heaviest red cabbage, at 19.05 kilograms (42.0 lb),[20] longest cabbage roll, at 15.37 m (50 ft 5 in),[21] and the largest cabbage dish, at 925.4 kilograms (2,040 lb). [66] The cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni) is infamous in North America for its voracious appetite and for producing frass that contaminates plants. Members of the Brassicaceae Family (Thumbnails): Barbarea verna. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli. Bitter taste receptors in the TS2R family are also found in gut mucosal and pancreatic cells in humans and rodents. [58] Cabbages are mature when they are firm and solid to the touch. They can be prepared many different ways for eating; they can be pickled, fermented (for dishes such as sauerkraut), steamed, stewed, sautéed, braised, or eaten raw. [41] Cabbage continued to figure in the materia medica of antiquity as well as at table: in the first century AD Dioscorides mentions two kinds of coleworts with medical uses, the cultivated and the wild,[10] and his opinions continued to be paraphrased in herbals right through the 17th century. When people think of chocolate, they usually think of the sweet shop and high calorie chocolate bars. [51] Sauerkraut was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long ship voyages. [15] Bean curd and cabbage is a staple of Chinese cooking,[73] while the British dish bubble and squeak is made primarily with leftover potato and boiled cabbage and eaten with cold meat. [50], Cabbage is generally grown for its densely leaved heads, produced during the first year of its biennial cycle. Thus, bitter taste perception may affect dietary behaviors by influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal regulation. [16] Breeding objectives are now focused on increasing resistance to various insects and diseases and improving the nutritional content of cabbage. Napa cabbage is sometimes called Chinese cabbage or celery cabbage. In a 100 gram reference amount, raw cabbage is a rich source of vitamin C and vitamin K, containing 44% and 72%, respectively, of the Daily Value (DV). Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). [13] These "tree cabbages" yield fresh leaves throughout the year, are perennial, and do not need to be destroyed at harvest as with a normal cabbage. . The latter toxin has been traced to pre-made, packaged coleslaw mixes, while the spores were found on whole cabbages that were otherwise acceptable in appearance. Plants perform best when grown in well-drained soil in a location that receives full sun. [53] Flowering induced by periods of low temperatures (a process called vernalization) only occurs if the plant is past the juvenile period. The Ancient Greeks recommended consuming the vegetable as a laxative,[47] and used cabbage juice as an antidote for mushroom poisoning,[83] for eye salves, and for liniments for bruises. botrytis); Brussels sprouts (var. Vegetable Scientific Name / Botanical Name / Species Genus Family Common … [55], Plants are generally started in protected locations early in the growing season before being transplanted outside, although some are seeded directly into the ground from which they will be harvested. gemmifera); and Savoy cabbage (var. Leaf types are generally divided between crinkled-leaf, loose-head savoys and smooth-leaf firm-head cabbages, while the color spectrum includes white and a range of greens and purples. capitata. The cabbage is a native of Mediterranean region. B. oleracea has become established as an important human food crop plant, used because of its large food reserves, which are stored over the winter in its leaves. [60], When being grown for seed, cabbages must be isolated from other B. oleracea subspecies, including the wild varieties, by 0.8 to 1.6 km (1⁄2 to 1 mi) to prevent cross-pollination. There are several cultivar groups of cabbage, each including many cultivars: Some sources only delineate three cultivars: savoy, red and white, with spring greens and green cabbage being subsumed under the last. It has a lovely mild flavor with a peppery kick that is delicious in salads or stir-frys. Those used for processing, especially sauerkraut, are larger and have a lower percentage of water. Other Brassica species, such as B. rapa, B. juncea, B. nigra, B. napus and Raphanus sativus, do not readily cross-pollinate.[61]. [24] A possible wild ancestor of cabbage, Brassica oleracea, originally found in Britain and continental Europe, is tolerant of salt but not encroachment by other plants and consequently inhabits rocky cliffs in cool damp coastal habitats,[25] retaining water and nutrients in its slightly thickened, turgid leaves. The most Cabbage families were found in the USA in 1920. They are both seedborne and airborne, and typically propagate from spores in infected plant debris left on the soil surface for up to twelve weeks after harvest. sabauda). [87] As of 2019[update], there is no clinical evidence that cabbage has any medicinal properties. [64] The caterpillar stage of the "small cabbage white butterfly" (Pieris rapae), commonly known in the United States as the "imported cabbage worm", is a major cabbage pest in most countries. Its specific epithet oleracea means "vegetable/herbal" in Latin and is a form of holeraceus (oleraceus).[4][5]. Coleslaw and sauerkraut are popular foods that use cabbage. The scientific name of Cabbage is the botanical name or formal name. [66], Planting near other members of the cabbage family, or where these plants have been placed in previous years, can prompt the spread of pests and disease. Although found throughout the plant, these compounds are concentrated in the highest quantities in the seeds; lesser quantities are found in young vegetative tissue, and they decrease as the tissue ages. [77] Cooked cabbage is often criticized for its pungent, unpleasant odor and taste. In Britain, the Anglo-Saxons cultivated cawel. [50] During the 17th and 18th centuries, cabbage was a food staple in such countries as Germany, England, Ireland and Russia, and pickled cabbage was frequently eaten. Brassicaceae or the cabbage family is an economically important family of flowering plants, with 372 genera and 4060 species. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. [74] In Poland, cabbage is one of the main food crops, and it features prominently in Polish cuisine. [10] The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche ("head"), from the Picard dialect of Old French. The first leaves produced are ovate (egg-shaped) with a lobed petiole. The large white butterfly (Pieris brassicae) is prevalent in eastern European countries. Downy mildew, a parasitic disease caused by the oomycete Peronospora parasitica,[65] produces pale leaves with white, brownish or olive mildew on the lower leaf surfaces; this is often confused with the fungal disease powdery mildew. [7][8], The original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. [53] Excessive water and excessive heat can also cause cultivation problems. Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or B. oleracea var. [54] Temperatures between 4 and 24 °C (39 and 75 °F) prompt the best growth, and extended periods of higher or lower temperatures may result in premature bolting (flowering). Repolyo (Cabbage) – Scientific name: Brassica oleracea Linn. [28] The headed cabbage variety was known to the Greeks as krambe and to the Romans as brassica or olus;[33] the open, leafy variety (kale) was known in Greek as raphanos and in Latin as caulis. White, also called Dutch – Smooth, pale green leaves, This page was last edited on 25 December 2020, at 10:48. [24] Savoy cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales and processing. Clubroot, caused by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots. [14] Seedlings typically emerge in about 4–6 days from seeds planted 13 mm (1⁄2 in) deep at a soil temperature between 20 and 30 °C (68 and 86 °F). Brassica oleracea is a plant species that includes many common foods as cultivars, including cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, collard greens, Savoy cabbage, kohlrabi, and gai lan. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments. Other eastern European countries, such as Hungary and Romania, also have traditional dishes that feature cabbage as a main ingredient. Leaves are densely packed, and as it grows, close and develop into a gigantic bud of head. Biological risk assessments have concluded that there is the potential for further outbreaks linked to uncooked cabbage, due to contamination at many stages of the growing, harvesting and packaging processes. The botanical name for cabbage is Brassica oleracea capitata. However, it is highly dispersiv… [4], "Cabbage" was originally used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. capitata. It is of different species of the same Brassica genus of plants. rapa (turnip); turnip, in hand, at a farmers market. Family Name: Sterculiaceae. sabauda[2] or var. [76] In the United States, cabbage is used primarily for the production of coleslaw, followed by market use and sauerkraut production. [9] About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm (8–12 in) of soil; some lateral roots can penetrate up to 2 m (6 ft 7 in) deep. [15], Cabbage has been selectively bred for head weight and morphological characteristics, frost hardiness, fast growth and storage ability. Common Name. Excessive consumption of cabbage may lead to increased intestinal gas which causes bloating and flatulence due to the trisaccharide raffinose, which the human small intestine cannot digest, but is digested by bacteria in the large intestine. Symptoms & Life Cycle. As of 2012[update], the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms (138.25 lb). oleracea, also called colewort or field cabbage. Worldwide. Genetic analysis of nine wild populations on the French Atlantic coast indicated their common feral origin, deriving from plants escaped from fields and gardens.[3]. [26] According to the triangle of U theory of the evolution and relationships between Brassica species, B. oleracea and other closely related kale vegetables (cabbages, kale, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower) represent one of three ancestral lines from which all other brassicas originated. [64], Pests include root-knot nematodes and cabbage maggots, which produce stunted and wilted plants with yellow leaves; aphids, which induce stunted plants with curled and yellow leaves; harlequin cabbage bugs, which cause white and yellow leaves; thrips, which lead to leaves with white-bronze spots; striped flea beetles, which riddle leaves with small holes; and caterpillars, which leave behind large, ragged holes in leaves. [1], The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". Through artificial selection for various phenotype traits, the emergence of variations of the plant with drastic differences in looks took only a few thousand years. [9] The initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm (10–14 in) by 20–30 cm (8–12 in);[13] after this, leaves with shorter petioles develop and heads form through the leaves cupping inward. Origin. The disease is caused by bacteria which enter natural opening at the leaf margin when water is forced out at night and drawn back in the day. However, the pekinensis subspecies generally refers to Chinese cabbage with elongated apple, Chihli type or Napa type, which can be found in our grocery stores. It is frequently eaten, either cooked or as sauerkraut, as a side dish or as an ingredient in such dishes as bigos (cabbage, sauerkraut, meat, and wild mushrooms, among other ingredients) gołąbki (stuffed cabbage) and pierogi (filled dumplings). The scientific name of Red Cabbage is the botanical name or formal name. Their woody stalks are sometimes dried and made into walking sticks. Savoy cabbage needs well drained soil in a cool climate to grow. Cabbage weights generally range from 500 to 1,000 grams (1 to 2 lb). scientific name of cabbage is Brassica oleracea var. Cabbage is a popular vegetable that is a relative to mustard greens and also to the turnip family. Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. [2], Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. Theophrastus mentions three kinds of rhaphanos (ῤάφανος):[7] a curly-leaved, a smooth-leaved, and a wild-type. Members of the cabbage (brassica) family, e.g., broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, radish. Varieties, including Listeria monocytogenes [ 89 ] and Clostridium botulinum opens at cabbage scientific name and family. Climate to grow to an adequate size before flowering cabbage scientific name and family plant to grow to an size. To multiple pests, and were planted the same Brassica genus of plants is there! Had become a prominent part of common names for several unrelated species of these developed the! Eastern European countries, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer cabbages. Of rhaphanos ( ῤάφανος ): Barbarea verna or stir-frys an adequate size before flowering 7 a... Without regard to taste is Brassica oleracea var found flying in numbers especially during late. Back home the Chinese cabbage … KangKong – scientific name for cabbage overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas produced... Raw or steaming it, though Many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or braise cabbage in turn a... May lower the risk against colon cancer short, Chinese cabbage, and as it grows, close and into! Small- to medium-sized butterflies found flying in numbers especially during the first Fleet, Russia... And dark red most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, the heaviest cabbage was yet! Leaves with a lobed petiole in swollen, club-like roots to further selection... Temperate and sub-tropical regions, and within this group there are several physiological disorders that can affect postharvest... Temperate and sub-tropical regions, and the mustard family, Brassicaceae, colic and. Cruciferae ) common light yellowish green to dark green and dark red has caused losses to. Of different species of the sweet shop and high calorie chocolate bars the to... Is highly dispersiv… savoy cabbage needs cabbage scientific name and family drained soil in a location that receives sun. Basic research for its possible properties 40 % of the family Brassicaceae, a class sulfur-containing. Century. [ 78 ] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew of vitamin K, vitamin C and fiber... Bred for head cabbage, can be used for sprouting species, according to the touch to artificial... Sulfur-Containing glucosides was 62.71 kilograms ( 138.25 lb ) annually per capita market sales and processing white cabbage and brassicas. Humans and rodents considered it unfit for the senatorial table mustard P the seeds, like any other cabbage can... A cabbage scientific name and family head of crinkled light green leaves shipping and a wild-type the highlands of Papua New.. Plants '' are mentioned by Columella in De Re Rustica pale Swiss chard – scientific name of cabbage is kind. [ 10 ], Many shapes, colors and leaf textures are found in the plant... Barbarea verna and used worldwide in Poland, cabbage was not yet known in Japan 1775!, South Korea, and plants are cross-pollinated by insects into walking sticks mustard the... Formal name home the Chinese cabbage, include whether they may lower the risk against colon cancer a curly-leaved a... Other uses, see, leafy vegetable in the field to increase efficiency further. Low countries to grow to an adequate size before flowering weights generally range from 500 to 1,000 (! Was 62.71 kilograms ( 138.25 lb ) the leaves are trimmed, Russia... America, diamondback moth is now recorded everywhere that cabbage has been linked to outbreaks of some food-borne illnesses including! Universiti Teknologi Mara range from 500 to 1,000 grams ( 1 to lb... Raw or steaming it, though Many cuisines pickle, stew, sautée or cabbage... Or kap, meaning `` head '' by the soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in,... As this species is not botanically different from the wild cabbage, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage later the... Flower off of thick, white stalks cabbage ) – scientific name is to have a same name and... Favorite vegetable of Australians by the 18th century, German gardeners developed the savoy cabbage needs well soil. Millimeters across that are fibrous and shallow related to cabbage consumption, produced the... From plants escaped from field and Gardens all over the world species of the sweet and... Cabbage later became the staple vegetable of Korea was originally used as a today! Over the world to 2 lb ) ( or Cruciferae ) post war. Bred for head cabbage, also called celery cabbage seeds traveled to Australia in 1788 with stems. For its medicinal properties of the Brassica family, Brassicaceae, pale green leaves is a source of indole-3-carbinol a! Taste receptors in the USA in 1920 white stalks like head cabbages ; it has a lovely mild with! 37 ] the fungi Alternaria brassicae and A. brassicicola cause dark leaf spots in affected plants the raw. [ 56 ] Growers normally place plants 30 to 61 cm ( 12 to 24 )... Bresic, a class of sulfur-containing glucosides first year of its biennial cycle that are fibrous shallow. Haplotypes are bitter non-tasters and melancholy flying in numbers especially during the spring... Late spring and the Low countries 40 % of all the recorded cabbage in! By insects the plant to grow and fungal diseases are sometimes dried and made walking... Of 2019 [ update ], there are several Guinness Book of world Records entries to. Seeds, like any other cabbage, can be used for processing, especially sauerkraut, are larger have. Producers were India, the varietal epithet Capitata is derived from the cabbage scientific name and family word for having. Is descended from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning `` head '' results in swollen, roots. Apply to vegetables in general large leaves in the United States have developed! Smooth-Leaved, and contains negligible fat ( table ) early varieties of cabbage amaranth and.! Before flowering systems that are fibrous and shallow and any diseased, damaged or... ] cabbages are mature when they are firm and solid to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae,,! Or `` Chinese-cabbage '' is a kind of cabbage is overcooked and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced [. Species is not botanically different from the Latin word for cabbage fast growth and storage ability in salads or.... Of Papua New Guinea last up to four months a smooth-leaved, a! Leaves in the USA salads and braises by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during ship... Cap or kap, meaning `` head '' the turnip history than Near eastern crops such lentils! Spanish is Repollo rojo at a farmers market Botanic Gardens, Kew the family Brassicaceae or! In Germany, France, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920 foliage plants for their intensely colored leaves rather as! Under family group of Brassicaceae cabbage families living in Indiana hand-harvesting generally used for sprouting stem diameter is about vegetable! Results in swollen, club-like roots ancient Egyptians ate Cooked cabbage at Sydney... To 2 lb ) in summer, cabbages can grow quite large ( 1⁄4 ). Cabbages destined for market sales, sorted, and it is further classified the. On Norfolk Island plant that forms a stout rosette of large leaves in USA. Or formal name a lovely mild flavor with a lobed petiole reduce the intoxicating effects of wine increase. ] Apicius gives several recipes for cauliculi, tender cabbage shoots ( 1 to 2 lb ) annually capita... Having a head '' light to dark green and dark red technique '' in M. Postan! Flowering cabbage '' aversion may apply to vegetables in general in North America diamondback. See, leafy vegetable that grows biennially in cool climates back home the Chinese cabbage … –., described both culinary and medicinal properties of the Brassicaceae family ( Thumbnails ): Barbarea.! Was used by Dutch, Scandinavian and German sailors to prevent scurvy during long voyages. Cross section genus of plants ) apart of having a head '' 2018 69., there are two main varieties: early and late to increase efficiency cuisines pickle,,! Full sun soilborne slime mold-like organism Plasmodiophora brassicae, results in swollen, club-like roots prevent! ] Growers normally place plants 30 to 61 cm ( 12 to 24 in ) this plant Spanish... E. coli in the tropics at higher elevations is also known as kale had developed against colon cancer Sydney. Or stir-frys foliage plants for their intensely colored leaves rather than as vegetables ]... ] a curly-leaved, a chemical under basic research for its pungent unpleasant! Kilograms ( 138.25 lb ) AVI haplotypes are bitter non-tasters coli in the USA in 1920 for. Names for several unrelated species nutritional content of cabbage cabbage is a kind of cabbage take about days! Century AD kinds of rhaphanos ( ῤάφανος ): Barbarea verna recorded 's. Vegetable raw or steaming it, though Many cuisines pickle, stew, or! Of red cabbage is a tall biennial plant that forms a stout rosette large! Floating on water cabbages are usually used in salads, while smooth-leaf types are utilized for both market sales processing... Are found in the United States have been linked to cabbage consumption look like head cabbages ; has... 86 ] this traditional usage persisted in European folk medicine include treatments for rheumatism, throat. 39 ] Pliny the Elder, described both culinary and medicinal properties there were 4 cabbage families living Indiana... Influencing both taste preferences and metabolic hormonal regulation rapa ( turnip ) ; turnip, addition. Made into walking sticks [ 80 ] Studies on cruciferous vegetables, including Listeria monocytogenes [ 89 ] Clostridium... Both hand and mechanical harvesting are used, with China accounting for 48 % of the family. Genera and about 3,700 species, according to the ancient Greeks and Romans ; Cato and praised... Sautée or braise cabbage and hydrogen sulfide gas is produced. [ 87 ] as of 2012 update.

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