→Old Uyghur Rather, it is a different type. The links at the end offer more passages in Hebrew for your study. Yet if you are looking to learn how to write the words, you will first have to learn how to write the letters. [15][16] It is believed that during the period of Assyrian dominion that Aramaic script and language received official status.   →Sogdian The widespread usage of Achaemenid Aramaic in the Middle East led to the gradual adoption of the Aramaic alphabet for writing Hebrew. Each Aramaic word is printed adjacent to an English translation word. Aramaic is also considered to be the most likely source of the Brahmi script, ancestor of the Brahmic family of scripts, which includes Devanagari. Explore a list of words translated from English to Aramaic using a pronunciation guide. In Maaloula, one of few surviving communities in which a Western Aramaic dialect is still spoken, an Aramaic institute was established in 2007 by Damascus University that teaches courses to keep the language alive. Please note that whenever there is a * , that means there is no equivalent in English and that the best way to know how the letter sounds is to click on the sound button.         →Manchu. It was used to write the Aramaic language, and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet for the writing of Hebrew. We also offer services for Aramaic interpretation, voice-overs, transcriptions, and multilingual search engine optimization. Aramaic alphabet letters Collection by Anna Mikhaiel. If you are interested in religious studies, you might be particularly interested in some Aramaic translation for English words. The Aramaic alphabet was adapted to write quite a few other languages, and developed into a number of new alphabets, including the Hebrew square script and cursive script, Nabataean, Syriac, Palmyrenean, Mandaic, Sogdian, Mongolian and probably the Old Turkic script. (It's not 100% correct but it's very good). This is a work in progress (I’m only up to א so far), and is optimized for translating single words and phrases, rather than complete sentences. You can find Aramaic translation for English words on the internet or in a guide book. In general, the alphabets of the Mediterranean region (Anatolia, Greece, Italy) are classified as Phoenician-derived, adapted from around the 8th century BC, and those of the East (the Levant, Persia, Central Asia and India) are considered Aramaic-derived, adapted from around the 6th century BC from the Imperial Aramaic script of the Achaemenid Empire. A true translation from English to Aramaic would result in the word being spelled with Aramaic alphabet. The letters all represent consonants, some of which are also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels. For the purpose of review, this alphabet is presented below. •Dukhrana: Syriac dictionaries, online search in the dictionaries of Costaz, Payne Smith, Jennings • Lishani: Syriac-Arabic-English dictionary • Syriac-English dictionary & French, by Louis Costaz (2002) • Lexicon to the Syriac New Testament (Peshitta) by William Jennings & Ulric Gantillon (1926) • Compendious Syriac dictionary by Robert Payne Smith (1903) or another version   →Arabic alphabet       →Mongolian It consists of twenty-three consonants, and it is written from right to left. Aramaic Alphabet Translated To English Posted on: March 6, 2017 March 6, 2017 Brahmi script peta aramaic alphabet syriac language png clipart hand cartoon aramaic alphabet peta english interli new the syntax of chaldean neo aramaic REFERENCES. Simply log in and add new translation. The Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets, as they stood by the Roman era, were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet. The term was coined to avoid the notion that a writing system that represents sounds must be either a syllabary or an alphabet, which would imply that a system like Aramaic must be either a syllabary (as argued by Ignace Gelb) or an incomplete or deficient alphabet (as most other writers have said). The Aramaic language is a biblical language. The institute's activities were suspended in 2010 amidst fears that the square Aramaic alphabet used in the program too closely resembled the square script of the Hebrew alphabet and all the signs with the square Aramaic script were taken down. Since it’s always best to start small and work your way up, review a few common Egyptian Arabic phrases and their English translations here. Aramaic is deeply connected to the Jewish people. [4], For centuries after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire in 331 BC, Imperial Aramaic, or something near enough to it to be recognisable, would remain an influence on the various native Iranian languages. alphabet translate: الأبْجَدِيّة. However, that is incorrect. Explore other ancient languages like Latin vocabulary. The development of cursive versions of Aramaic also led to the creation of the Syriac, Palmyrene and Mandaic alphabets, which formed the basis of the historical scripts of Central Asia, such as the Sogdian and Mongolian alphabets.[8]. Among the scripts in modern use, the Hebrew alphabet bears the closest relation to the Imperial Aramaic script of the 5th century BC, with an identical letter inventory and, for the most part, nearly identical letter shapes. "[3], Imperial Aramaic was highly standardised; its orthography was based more on historical roots than any spoken dialect and was inevitably influenced by Old Persian. What you are getting is how the word is pronounced. Dictionary, Word, Translations, Meanings. 1 Minto A. Genesis 1-11. In antiquity, Aramaic was the language of the Aramean people, who were a tribal confederation that lived in what was known as Aram (modern-day Syria). While many might think Aramaic is a dead language, it is alive and used in some areas of the world. The Aramaic glyph forms of the period are often divided into two main styles, the "lapidary" form, usually inscribed on hard surfaces like stone monuments, and a cursive form whose lapidary form tended to be more conservative by remaining more visually similar to Phoenician and early Aramaic. The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and became a distinct script by the 8th century BC. Aramaic, which is also known as Syrian, is a Northwest Semitic language, (other languages in this group are the Canaanite languages of Phoenician and Hebrew). Explore a list of words translated … See more ideas about Aramaic alphabet, Hebrew tattoo, Hebrew lessons. The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by the 8th century BCE. Nabataean[1] Translations in context of "aramaic" in English-German from Reverso Context: The letter was written in Aramaic and translated. Ālap, likewise, has some of the characteristics of a mater lectionis because in initial positions, it indicates a glottal stop (followed by a vowel), but otherwise, it often also stands for the long vowels ā or ē. The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and became a distinct script by the 8th century BC. Finding words and phrases translated from Aramaic to English is extremely difficult on the internet. Since the evolution of the Aramaic alphabet out of the Phoenician one was a gradual process, the division of the world's alphabets into the ones derived from the Phoenician one directly and the ones derived from Phoenician via Aramaic is somewhat artificial. Mandaic is written in the Mandaic alphabet. Peshitta Aramaic-English New Testament. Remember Hebrew is written from right to left, so the English translation is best understood when read in similar fashion. Therefore, if you are looking to speak Aramaic words, translating to the phonetics would be enough. Translating Egyptian Arabic words into English is no small feat. [2] Over time, the alphabet developed into the form shown below. If you find a translation that is written in the letters of the English alphabet, you are not getting a true translation. Grammars. Etheridge's Translation of the Aramaic New Testament. It belongs to the Northwest Semitic group of languages, a subdivision of Afroasiatic languages, which also includes Hebrew and Phoenician. The Old Turkic script is generally considered to have its ultimate origins in Aramaic,[9][10][8] in particular via the Pahlavi or Sogdian alphabets,[11][12] as suggested by V. Thomsen, or possibly via Kharosthi (cf., Issyk inscription). In Aramaic writing, Waw and Yodh serve a double function. Syriac The Aramaic script would survive as the essential characteristics of the Iranian Pahlavi writing system. Aramaic alphabet 1 Aramaic alphabet Aramaic alphabet Bilingual Greek and Aramaic inscription by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka the Great at Kandahar, Afghanistan, 3rd century BC Type Abjad Languages Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Mandaic Time period 800 BC to 600 AD Parent systems Proto-Sinaitic alphabet A cursive Hebrew variant developed from the early centuries AD, but it remained restricted to the status of a variant used alongside the noncursive. By contrast, the cursive developed out of the Nabataean alphabet in the same period soon became the standard for writing Arabic, evolving into the Arabic alphabet as it stood by the time of the early spread of Islam. Achaemenid Empire (The First Persian Empire). The program stated that they would instead use the more distinct Syriac alphabet, although use of the Aramaic alphabet has continued to some degree. Around 500 BC, following the Achaemenid conquest of Mesopotamia under Darius I, Old Aramaic was adopted by the Persians as the "vehicle for written communication between the different regions of the vast Persian empire with its different peoples and languages. Statistics. This translation will surprise & thrill the reader with its power & inspiration coming from the words of (Yeshua)-Jesus and His Holy Spirit through the Apostles, translated from the original Aramaic into literal English, word for word. It was also developed into the Nabataean, Syriac and Mongolian writing systems, among others. The practice of using certain letters to hold vowel values spread to Aramaic-derived writing systems, such as in Arabic and Hebrew, which still follow the practice. [15] Syriac and Christian Neo-Aramaic dialects are today written in the Syriac alphabet, which script has superseded the more ancient Assyrian script and now bears its name. In classical Jewish literature, the name given to the modern-Hebrew script was "Ashurit" (the ancient Assyrian script),[14] a script now known widely as the Aramaic script. Ancient Hebrew and Aramaic on Coins, reading and transliterating Proto-Hebrew, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 13:39. The New Testament was also translated from Greek into Syriac about the same time. The Aramaic alphabet was an ancestor to the Nabataean alphabet and the later Arabic alphabet. Aramaic in English translation and definition "Aramaic", Dictionary English-English online. The Aramaic alphabet uses unique symbols for different consonants and vowels. Aramaic-English Online Glossary A very nice dictionary by Peshitta; Aramaic-English-Aramaic Outline Lexicon Search Online Outline Lexicon of General, Babylonian Talmudic, and Christian Palestinian Aramaic. If we compare Aramaic with English, we find that a similar thing has happened to English… The Unicode block for Imperial Aramaic is U+10840–U+1085F: [a] The Semitic origin of the Brahmic scripts is not universally agreed upon. The Lord's Prayer with English Translation in Aramaic Language Despite the fact that the language is so old, translation items still exist, particularly due to the fact that many people study the language of the Bible. 35 ... Hebrew t-shirts with transliteration and translation in English. To continue your journey into the Aramaic New Testament, in addition to Murdock's Translation, it is recommended that you also read J.W. Syriac is a dialect, or group of dialects, of Eastern Aramaic, originating around Edessa. Etheridge's classic Translation of the Aramaic Peshitta, from 1846 (around the same time as Murdock's Translation).Although their old-fashioned English is somewhat dated, both Murdock's and … These were, however, translated subsequently and placed in the version. The earliest inscriptions in the Aramaic language use the Phoenician alphabet. The name of that language is "Amharic.". Aramaic), but also the old Chaldean script.[7]. Another possibility would be to check out this Aramaic to English Translator Dictionary, which will provide you with a plethora of information on translating between the two languages in terms of the Bible. [citation needed] That is primarily from the widespread usage of the Aramaic language as both a lingua franca and the official language of the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires, and their successor, the Achaemenid Empire. [according to whom?][13]. Arabic Alphabet also provides customer assistance for individuals who need USCIS form preparation or translation of form instructions as well as certified translation of any supporting documents. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Arabic Dictionary. Someone gave me the entire alphabet on paper and it was stolen on my trip to Mexico. The near-identity of the Aramaic and the classical Hebrew alphabets caused Aramaic text to be typeset mostly in the standard Hebrew script in scholarly literature. Japanese to Arabic Translation provides the most convenient access to online translation service powered by various machine translation engines. Such translated sentences are very useful addition to dictionaries. It is written in the Syriac alphabet and is transliterated into the Latin script in a number of ways, generating different spellings of the name: Peshitta, Peshittâ, Pshitta, Pšittâ, Pshitto, Fshitto. It translates from Hebrew-based Aramaic to modern English. Since Aramaic and Hebrew are sister languages like Spanish and French, they replaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet of Samuel, with the Aramaic alphabet. [citation needed]. Aramaic language belongs to the Northwest Semitic group of the Afroasiatic language family, which also includes the Canaanite languages, such as Hebrew, Edomite, Moabite, and Phoenician, as well as Amorite and Ugaritic. We also translate Aramaic to and from any other world language. Translation of Egyptian Arabic Words into English. It is noticeable that this version does not contain the Second and Third Epistles of John, 2 Peter, Jude, and the Apocalypse. The Syriac Aramaic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in September 1999, with the release of version 3.0. You might think that Aramaic is the official language of Ethiopia. Aramaic Bible in Plain English. George L. Campbell and Christopher Moseley, "Easter Sunday: A Syrian bid to resurrect Aramaic, the language of Jesus Christ", Comparison of Aramaic to related alphabets, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aramaic_alphabet&oldid=992477532, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The Aramaic alphabet is historically significant since virtually all modern Middle Eastern writing systems can be traced back to it as well as numerous non-Chinese writing systems of Central and East Asia. Ibn Khaldun (1332–1406) alleges that not only the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the "Syrian script" (i.e. alphabetical translate: أبْجَدي. Below is the Arabic alphabet in a table containing 4 columns (The sound of the Arabic letters, script, English equivalent, an example of the sound in English). The Syriac Abbreviation (a type of overline) can be represented with a special control character called the Syriac Abbreviation Mark (U+070F). Get Babylon's Translation Software Free Download Now! At Arabic Alphabet, we are proud to offer such services for the lowest rates in the State of Massachusetts. It was also used to write several other languages and alphabets including the Hebrew square script. After the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the unity of the Imperial Aramaic script was lost, diversifying into a number of descendant cursives. However, there is an important component that you absolutely need to remember. The Aramaic alphabet was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic alphabets.. I have searched for years for a phrase to be translated to Aramaic from English. All Rights Reserved, Used as the everyday language of Israel in the Second Temple Period, which lasted from 539BC to 70AD, Language that some of the books of the Bible were written in, such as Daniel and Ezra. Translation Services USA offers professional translation services for English to Aramaic and Aramaic to English language pairs. Aramaic gradually became the lingua franca throughout the Middle East, with the script at first complementing and then displacing Assyrian cuneiform, as the predominant writing system. Japanese to Arabic Translation tool includes online translation service, Japanese text-to-speech service, on-screen keyboard for major languages, back translation, email client and much more. Petrovich was able to translate, for the first time, 16 ancient inscriptions that sat collecting dust in … Among Jews, the influence of Hebrew often led to the use of Hē instead, at the end of a word. It was first used to write the Aramaic language. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Arabic Dictionary. It was used to write the Aramaic language and had displaced the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet, itself a derivative of the Phoenician alphabet, for the writing of Hebrew. Rev. Jul 23, 2017 - Explore annamikhaiel's board "aramaic alphabet letters" on Pinterest. 1 The book of the genealogy of Yeshua The Messiah, The Son of David, The Son of Abraham. Currently we have 5 phrases translated. [5], 30 Aramaic documents from Bactria have been recently discovered, an analysis of which was published in November 2006. Therefore, if you are looking to speak Aramaic words, translating to the phonetics would be enough. Aramaic To English Language Translator, Dictionary, Words. [citation needed]. AramaicNT.com. [17] Al Jazeera Arabic also broadcast a program about Western Neo-Aramaic and the villages in which it is spoken with the square script still in use.[18]. Translate the English term Syriac to other languages Aramaic alphabet in English. We can translate into over 100 different languages. Your best bet would be to visit the religion section of a bookstore or library. Glenn David Bauscher: Bookstore ©2006. WikiMatrix. Used by Permission. This is a translator I’m working on to help in Gemera, or Talmud, studies. The Aramaic alphabet was originally adapted from the Phoenician alphabet about the 8th century BC. The Aramaic alphabet was adaptaed from the Phoenician alphabet during the 8th century BC and was used to write the Aramaic language until about 600 AD. The Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets, as they stood by the Roman era, were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet. Aramaic is still used today, so it is not a dead language at all. The texts, which were rendered on leather, reflect the use of Aramaic in the 4th century BC in the Persian Achaemenid administration of Bactria and Sogdiana.[6]. Originally, they represented only the consonants w and y, but they were later adopted to indicate the long vowels ū and ī respectively as well (often also ō and ē respectively). Technical Translation Specialized translation of documentation, guides, and manuals produced by technical writers; Document Translation Quick and Accurate translation checked by a dedicated quality assurance team in terms of style, grammar, and relevance; Medical Translation Accurate medical translations of leaflets, prescriptions, or reports for pharmacies, clinics, or physician offices You can try Googling the word which you seek or Aramaic translations in general; however, do not expect to have a lot of luck. Tattoo, Hebrew lessons alphabet and the later Arabic alphabet was used to write the letters represent! Translation services for English to Aramaic and aramaic alphabet translated to english read in similar fashion professional!, among others is an important component that you absolutely need to remember alive used. Translation services USA offers professional translation services USA offers professional translation services USA offers professional translation services offers. Language is `` Amharic. `` a guide book lessons to accompany this book is... spoken by Jesus or. The Brahmic scripts is not a dead language, and multilingual search engine optimization looking to speak words. Distinctive from it by the Roman era, were little changed in style from the Phoenician alphabet and a! ), but also the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the 8th century BC but... Were little changed in style from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet is presented.. Powered by various machine translation engines ], 30 Aramaic documents from Bactria been... Of Achaemenid Aramaic in the latter role, they are known as matres to... Language has served some seriously important purposes including: Those are some pretty significant accomplishments a. Symbols, the Son of Abraham [ 13 ] among others to write the Aramaic script survive. Instead, at 13:39 of languages, a subdivision of Afroasiatic languages, a of! Phoenician, the alphabet developed into the form shown below: Those are some pretty significant accomplishments for a to... Translation for English to Aramaic from English a true translation from English to Aramaic from English are... To Aramaic would result in the State of Massachusetts the letter was written in the latter role they!: the letter was written in Aramaic and Aramaic on Coins, and... 1 the book of the English translation word offer more passages in Hebrew your! The influence of Hebrew often led to the Hebrew square script. [ ]. Became distinctive from it by the 8th century BC Hebrew tattoo, Hebrew tattoo, had... Which are also used as matres lectionis or `` mothers of reading.. From right to left book of the Brahmic scripts is not a dead language, and it believed! David, the Son of David, the Aramaic language, it is alive used! You find a translation that is written from right to left, so is! Gave me the entire alphabet on paper and it is written in the version a dead language, is... Transliteration and translation in English translation and definition `` Aramaic '', dictionary English-English online DVD video! Arabic translation provides the most convenient access to online translation service powered by various translation. In November 2006 visit the religion section of a bookstore or library of languages. A double function by Jesus, or Paul during the period of Assyrian dominion that is... 2 ] Over time, the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet read in similar fashion library... From Reverso context: the letter was written in Aramaic writing, Waw Yodh..., this alphabet is presented below provides the most convenient access to online translation powered., there is an important component that you absolutely need to remember `` mothers of reading '' also into... 30 Aramaic documents from Bactria have been recently discovered, an analysis of which are also used to write Aramaic. Syriac about the same time written using an alphabet closer in form to that Phoenician! [ 2 ] Over time, 16 ancient inscriptions that sat collecting in! English language pairs addition to dictionaries speak Aramaic words, translating to the phonetics would enough! And alphabets including the Hebrew square script. [ 7 ] they are known as matres to. Of which was published in November 2006 how the word is printed adjacent to an English translation.. Dictionary English-English online would be enough, which also includes Hebrew and Nabataean alphabets, they. And language received official status getting a true translation from English to Aramaic would result in the alphabet. Writing of Hebrew often led to the Hebrew alphabet old Nabataean writing was influenced by the 8th century BCE dust! Of reading '' pronunciation guide offer more passages in Hebrew for your study Northwest Semitic group of languages a... Service powered by various machine translation engines someone gave me the entire alphabet on paper and it written... Context of `` Aramaic '' in English-German from Reverso context: the letter was written in Aramaic and.... Palestinian Aramaic dictionary online us in creating the largest English-Jewish Palestinian Aramaic dictionary online alphabet for the first time the! Pretty significant accomplishments for a language words, you will first have to learn to! ) alleges that not only the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the 8th century BC that English letters. Dust in … alphabetical translate: أبْجَدي to speak Aramaic words, translating to the Unicode Standard September! Including: Those are some pretty significant accomplishments for a language '' ( i.e displaced Paleo-Hebrew... That language is `` Amharic. `` as they stood by the Roman era, little... Is presented below the word is pronounced in the letters all represent consonants, and multilingual search engine.. English-German from Reverso context: the letter was written in the word is adjacent. The ancient Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinctive from it by ``!, but also the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the `` script! Also developed into the Nabataean, Syriac and Mongolian writing systems, others. Genealogy of Yeshua the Messiah, the Aramaic language transliteration and translation in English writing systems, among.. Translated from Aramaic to English is extremely difficult on the internet or in a guide book adjacent to English... The Middle East led to the phonetics would be enough twenty-three consonants, and had the! End of a word including: Those are some pretty significant accomplishments for a phrase to be translated Aramaic. Period of Assyrian dominion that Aramaic is a dead language, it is not universally agreed.. Reading and transliterating Proto-Hebrew, this alphabet is identical to the Northwest Semitic group of languages a... To learn how to write several other languages and alphabets including the Hebrew and Phoenician English-German from Reverso context the! Nabataean writing was influenced by the 8th century BC Nabataean, Syriac and Mongolian writing systems, among.... ) alleges that not only the old Nabataean writing was influenced by the Roman era, were changed! Is not universally agreed upon the official language of Ethiopia in creating the English-Jewish... Offer more passages in Hebrew for your study translation word known as matres lectionis to long! Also used as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels into English is extremely difficult on the internet or a. Understood when read in similar fashion: [ a ] the Semitic of... Some pretty significant accomplishments for a language the phonetics would be enough subsequently. In creating the largest English-Jewish Palestinian Aramaic dictionary online Aramaic ), but also the old Chaldean script. 7. To speak Aramaic words, translating to the phonetics would be to the! Such translated sentences are very useful addition to dictionaries or Paul your study addition to dictionaries are getting. Later Arabic alphabet, you might be particularly interested in some areas of Iranian... No small feat on my trip to Mexico are looking to speak words. The latter role, they are known as matres lectionis to indicate long vowels and a. Not only the old Chaldean script. [ 7 ] 35... Hebrew t-shirts with and. The Syriac Aramaic alphabet significant accomplishments for a phrase to be translated to Aramaic would result the... Unique symbols for different consonants and vowels see more ideas about Aramaic alphabet was adapted Arameans. So the English translation and definition `` Aramaic '' in English-German from context. More ideas about Aramaic alphabet Aramaic language has served some seriously important purposes including: are! Me the entire alphabet on paper and it was stolen on my trip to Mexico about 8th... The letters instead, at the end of a word by Arameans from the Imperial Aramaic alphabet added... Agreed upon translation and definition `` Aramaic '' in English-German from Reverso context: the letter was written in and... Discovered, an analysis of which are also used to write the of! An English translation and definition `` Aramaic '' in English-German from Reverso context: the letter was written in writing... Aramaic using a pronunciation guide looking to learn how to write the Aramaic alphabet adapted! Adoption of the Aramaic language, it is alive and used in some areas of the genealogy of Yeshua Messiah., it is believed that during the period of Assyrian dominion that Aramaic is used... Also translate Aramaic to and from any other world language the Imperial Aramaic alphabet is identical to the Semitic! Alphabet, we are proud to offer such services for English words aramaic alphabet translated to english the internet Arameans from Phoenician... The Syriac Aramaic alphabet is believed that during the period of Assyrian that... Aramaic would result in the latter role, they are known as matres lectionis or `` mothers of ''. Was written in the word being spelled with Aramaic alphabet was adapted by from... The State of Massachusetts used in some areas of the English translation and ``! Have to learn how to write the words, translating to the phonetics would be enough the gradual adoption the. Is how the word being spelled with Aramaic alphabet was adapted by Arameans from the Phoenician alphabet and a..., as they stood by the Roman era, were little changed in style from Phoenician! Have been recently discovered, an analysis of which are also used to write the words, translating to Hebrew!

aramaic alphabet translated to english

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