In any case, it is important to build resilience in the long run. "Preparing for an Uncertain Climate" examines how managed natural resource systems—such as water, agriculture, and forests—might adapt to changing environmental conditions brought about by global warming (OTA 1993).  The first generation of adaptation projects in Africa can be largely characterised as small-scale in nature, focused on targeted investments in agriculture and diffusion of technologies to support adaptive decision-making. The public policy team within the Climate Change Group at IIED have just finished 18 months of research into these planning processes. Lisa Dale with University of Rwanda graduate students after completing Sustainable Development and Climate Change Adaptation.  Water availability is a particular risk, with extreme events such as drought leading to humanitarian crises associated with periodic famines, food insecurity, population displacement, migration and conflict and insecurity.  The IPCC points out that many adverse effects of climate change are not changes in the average conditions, but changes in the variation or the extremes of conditions. Campaigns such as planting indigenous trees in water catchment areas, controlling human activities near catchment areas especially farming and settlement have been carried out to help protect water resources and avail access to water for communities especially during climatic shocks.  the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction Office, Extended drought can cause the failure of small and marginal farms with resultant economic, political and social disruption, more so than this currently occurs. ], harvnb error: no target: CITEREFIPCC_AR4_WG22007 (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFIPCC_AR4_SYR2007 (. Explore the overview for a general context of how climate change is affecting Rwanda. Submit your suggestion here! The settlement of environmental problems in Rwanda arising from climate change and the variability of climate necessitates more than elsewhere the integration of social and economic dimensions in the process of analysis and evaluation for the most appropriate adaptation. Primary country Rwanda Changes in consumption habits can help address climate change. Drip irrigation has especially been identified as a water efficient option as it directs the water to the root of the plant with minimal wastage. Agricultural Sector, Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Change: Issues of Longrun Sustainability, World Agriculture and Climate Change: Economic Adaptations, Risks, opportunities, and adaptation to climate change, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Equity in Climate Change.  Climate change is likely to further exacerbate water-stressed catchments across Africa - for example the Rufiji basin in Tanzania - owing to diversity of land uses, and complex sociopolitical challenges. , The launching ceremony of the Asia-Pacific climate change adaptation information platform(AP-PLAT) was launched in on 16th June 2019.Its aim is to provide Asia and pacific countries with data on climate change and convert it to adaptation and resilience measures. "many groundwater wells refilled with drinking water, rural towns with additional food supplies, and new sources of work and income for villagers, thanks to the need for tree maintenance". Its efforts include not only making buildings less prone to flooding, but taking steps to reduce the future recurrence of specific problems encountered during and after the storm: weeks-long fuel shortages even in unaffected areas due to legal and transportation problems, flooded health care facilities, insurance premium increases, damage to electricity and steam generation in addition to distribution networks, and flooding of subway and roadway tunnels.. SDG13 targets to strengthen countries' resilience and adaptive capacities to climate-related issues. Numerous countries, including Australia, have held inquiries into and have planned or started adaptation measures. , Climate change is a reality in West Africa. During the scoping phase of FCFA, the Global Climate Adaptation Partnership (GCAP) was commissioned to carry out a pilot study in Rwanda to examine the use of climate information to achieve long-term development goals. , IPCC Working Group II, In 2008, the German Federal Cabinet adopted the 'German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change' that sets out a framework for adaptation in Germany. The cost of Rwanda’s Climate Action Plan over the next decade is estimated at 11 billion dollars, made up of 5.7 billion dollars for mitigation and 5.3 billion dollars for adaptation. Some have begun to take steps to adapt to threats intensified by climate change, such as flooding, bushfires, heatwaves, and rising sea levels..  While many migration events can be attributed to sudden environmental change, most migration events are a result of long term environmental changes and do not cause sudden migration. Severe weather events, particularly droughts, have historically imposed heavy costs in Rwanda. A Global Knowledge Portal for Climate and Development Practitioners, Climate Change Adaptation in Rwanda Fact Sheet. The Great Divide, The Economics of Climate Change. Assets and adaptation: an emerging debate. Explore historical and projected climate data, climate data by sector, impacts, key vulnerabilities and what adaptation measures are being taken. The situation is compounded by poor reliability of, and access to, climate data and information to support adaptation actions. In Africa, in particular, in terms of adaptation strategies Mozambique and Zimbabwe are clear examples of this because they have implemented relocation policies that have reduced the exposure of populations and migrants to disaster. Initially, when the Kyoto Protocol was in operation, the Adaptation Fund was financed by a 2% levy on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).  Flooding in coastal areas and drought have been the main reasons for relocation.  Many countries across Africa are classified as Least-Developed Countries (LDCs) with poor socio-economic conditions, and by implication are faced with particular challenges in responding to the impacts of climate change.. Accomplishing these challenges requires overcoming and addressing existing barriers regarding data availability and accessibility, as well as the limited capacity to conduct meteorological and hydrological analysis and forecasting. , In 2018, the New York WILD film festival gave the "Best Short Film" award to a 12-minute documentary, titled Adaptation Bangladesh: Sea Level Rise. Adaptation can mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change, but it will incur costs and will not prevent all damage. Politiken wrote: "Climate assistance is taken from the poorest.". Some climate change effects, such as the lowering level of lakes and water flows and forest degradation, are expected to occur throughout the country2.  In Europe a large framework called C3S for supplying climate services has been implemented by the European Union Copernicus programme.  According to the study, the safest and most predictable method of moderating climate change is early action to reduce GHG emissions. Adaptive policy can occur at the global, national, or local scale, with outcomes dependent on the political will in that area. Prowse, M., & Scott, L. (2008). The information provided on this website is not official U.S. government information and does not represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development or the U.S. Government.  This causes a variety of secondary effects, namely, changes in patterns of precipitation, rising sea levels, altered patterns of agriculture, increased extreme weather events, the expansion of the range of tropical diseases, and the opening of new marine trade routes; that without taking into account the social effects of climate change as inequity, pollution and diseases, environmental injustice and poverty. A number of adaptation needs remain, including mainstreaming adaptation into the country’s long-term development framework, vulnerability assessments for critical sectors, and development of a national climate change strategy that clearly identifies priority sector and ecosystem vulnerabilities and means for addressing them. In addition to government and United Nations reports, an extensive research literature assesses options for response to global warming. , Climate change threatens to undermine decades of development gains in Europe and put at risk efforts to eradicate poverty.  However, climate change may be too much for some natural ecosystems, such as coral reefs, to be able to adapt. But adaptation goes beyond just development to include measures to address additional risks specifically caused by climate change, such as raising the height of sea defences. These activities can include:, Others have suggested that certain forms of gender inequity should be addressed at the same time; for example women may have participation in decision-making, or be constrained by lower levels of education. Rwanda Climate Risk Profile (2019, 5 pages) Rwanda Greenhouse Gas Emissions (GHG) Factsheet (2018, 2 pages) GHG Emissions Factsheet: East Africa (2015, 8 pages) Climate Change Adaptation in Rwanda (2012, 4 pages) USAID Activities. "Sea Level Rise Adaptation: Emerging Lessons for Local Policy Development." It also explores flexible approaches to address the adaptation of ecological and socio-economic systems in the Virungas region to changing future conditions. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility, Gold Coast, 99 pp.  The Green Climate Fund was created in 2010 to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation. Other examples include prevention of glacial lake outburst flooding in Nepal, water management strategies in Australia, and government responses to heat waves in some European countries. For example, adaptive capacity in Western Europe is generally considered to be high, and the risks of warmer winters increasing the range of livestock diseases is well documented, but many parts of Europe were still badly affected by outbreaks of the Bluetongue virus in livestock in 2007. Modernising existing irrigation schemes to suit modern methods of farming, Supporting farmers' efforts to find their own water supplies, by tapping into groundwater in a sustainable way, Looking beyond conventional "Participatory Irrigation Management" schemes, by engaging the private sector, Transferring risk to the public purse does not reduce overall risk, Governments can spread the cost of losses across time rather than space, Governments can force home-owners in low risk areas to cross-subsidize the insurance premiums of those in high risk areas, Cross-subsidization is increasingly difficult for private sector insurers operating in a competitive market. 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