[53] In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Martius (1823 - 1853) described seven varieties of P. dactylifera, and Beccari (1890) a further two, using only loosely defined fruit characters. Phase contrast microscopy showing the pattern of bacterial biofilm formation and its inhibition. Diagnostic features. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. [45], The caffeic acid glycoside 3-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (also known as dactylifric acid) and its isomers, are enzymic browning substrates found in dates. Al-Hooti, S., Sidhu, J.S., Al-Otaibi, J., Al-Ameeri, H. and Qabazard, H. (1997). The serious student of date palm varieties and cultivars must look to Popenoe (1973) for a comprehensive list of vernacular names, and their meanings. Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. 'Thoory'). [citation needed]. Positive control that contains antibiotic, Khalas and Ajwa extracts inhibited the growth of bacterial colonies which were grown in nutrient broth. In North Africa, they are commonly used for making huts. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is an important fruit crop with significant pharmaceutical potential.Little data are available on comparative pharmaceutical importance of the date pits. Med. By continuing to browse The date palm Phoenix dactylifera L., due to deep and strong rooting, uses deep groundwater and can survive in oases in desert areas with low humidity and rainfall, even for over 100 years. Date Garden" in Indio, California. Powder of Date palm seed is utilized in customary prescriptions to treat toothache.16, Dates are reported to provide defense against oxidative destruction as a result of the phagocytic action of lymphocytes against pathogens and insects due to the presence of large quantity of dietary fibers, selenium, carotenoids, ascorbate and other essential antioxidants. Many cultivars are potentially referrable to any one of these names because of the brevity of the descriptions so that the names are useless to date grower and botanist alike. in a remote region of Nevada. At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit. Phoenix dactylifera L, commonly known as Date palm is a mem­ber of palm family Arecaceae, and it is one of the major staple crops in Africa and parts of Asia. [23][24] The draft genome sequence was improved in 2019 with the release of a more complete genome sequence using small molecule real-time sequencing technology by a team from the New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology and the UAE University Khalifa Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the United Arab Emirates. Six-milligram-sample of six varieties of DPSs were pyrolyzed in an inert condition (argon atmosphere) with a constant flow rate of 100 ml/min for the entire range of experiments. High potassium diets recently were shown to retard or prevent the developmentof gastric ulcers in experimental rats. Ajwa and Khalas protected the calf thymus DNA against damage caused by hydroxyl radicals produced by fenton reagent. Date extracts showed strong and concentration-dependant activity in all tested methods. Second-grade dates ( Phoenix dactylifera L.), with hard texture, from three selected Tunisian cultivars (Allig, Deglet Nour, and Bejo) were analysed from their antioxidant activities using DPPH radical scavenging activity, FRAP assay, H 2 O 2 scavenging activity, and metal chelating activity. [41] Some designs were patented. A major palm pest, the red palm beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) currently poses a significant threat to date production in parts of the Middle East as well as to iconic landscape specimens throughout the Mediterranean world. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft). In present study, ethanolic extract of both Ajwa and Khalas exhibited largest inhibition zones and lowest MIC values against B. Subtilis whereas lower inhibition zone against P. multocida. Nowadays, the intake of fruits and vegetables are highly recommended for healthy life to fulfill the requirements of essential nutrients through these natural sources. Phoenix dactylifera. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona, and the Bard Valley in California.[34]. varieties of Phoenix dactylifera palm leaves. [52] The highest percentage of red cell lysis was observed in ethanolic extract of Ajwa (3.45%) at 100 mg/mL concentration while lower percentage of red cells lysis was observed in ethanolic extract of Khalas at 10 mg/mL concentration. Results are expressed as mean percentages ± standard deviation (SD) of triplicate measurements on dry matter basis. During the past three centuries, dates were also introduced to new production areas in Australia, India/Pakistan, Mexico, southern Africa, South … Field: In younger palms, the stem is covered with narrow, triangular leaf bases of fallen or pruned leaves. Closely connected to the history of Human migrations, the first cultivated varieties of Phoenix dactylifera are thought to have originated around Mesopotamia and the Upper Arabian Gulf some 6700 to 6000 before the present. This study evaluated the therapeutic potential of 2 varieties of ethanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera i-e Ajwa and Khalas against bacterial biofilms. The date palm is dioecious, having separate male and female plants. ORCID iDMuhammad Riaz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5524-7735. Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Palestine. Authors also acknowledge the guidance and support of Incharge, Bioassay section, Medicinal Biochemistry Research Lab, Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, in conducting and completing this research work. Valorization of Tunisian secondary date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments: New fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties. Not all cities and countries have benefited with the date palms resilience and ease of growth. The date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization. Antibacterial Activities of AJWA and Khalas Extracts Against Selected Bacterial Strains. Figure 1. These effects proposed that scavenging capabilities of various extracts of Date palm was dependent on the concentration against DPPH. Ajwa has lower ash content which showed that Ajwa has lower inorganic compounds. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. Phase Contrast Microscopy showed the compact bacterial growth on slide of negative control in the absence of any antibacterial agent. For determining detailed data about the arrangements of different functional groups present in sample, FTIR spectroscopy was utilized and the FTIR spectra of tested samples are shown in Figure 5. The peak at 1410.05 entimetre−1 for Ajwa and 1414.22 cm−1 for Khalas may represent C=C (aromatic groups). Djibouti, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman Phoenix canariensis Chabaud: Canary Island date palm Apart from P. dactylifera, wild date palms such as Phoenix sylvestris and Phoenix reclinata, depending on the region, can be also tapped for sap. For this purpose, six date fruit varieties (Boufgous, Bouskri, Bousrdon, Bousthammi, Jihl, and Majhoul) were assessed for their phenolics profile and anti-inflammatory activity. Ali Haimoud S, Allem R, Merouane A. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of widely consumed date palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) fruit varieties in Algerian oases. [17] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. Fruits of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are consumed throughout the world and are a vital component of the diet in most Arabian countries.This study has been carried out to evaluate the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of four date palm fruit varieties grown in Tunisia. Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina. Fruits are up to 3-4 cm long, ovoid and yellow, red or orange-red when ripe. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the oldest cultivated trees and is intimately tied to the history of human civilization.There are hundreds of commercial cultivars with distinct fruit shapes, colors, and sizes growing mainly in arid lands from the west of North Africa to India. MATERIAL AND METHODS Plant Material Fresh leaves of three Phoenix dactylifera varieties (Deglet Nour, Medjhoul, and Barhee) were harvested in March from the garden of Sciences Faculty, Sfax, Tunisia. They have been reported to have anti-mutagenic and antioxidant activities as well as aid in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The peaks at 1027.10 cm−1 for Ajwa and 1024.44 cm−1 designated to C–O functional group.32. This study also investigated the protective effect of Ajwa and Khalas against hydroxyl radical damage to calf thymus DNA. This is visualized as a discolouration from purple to yellow. The fatty acidcomposition of the seed oil is 8% lauric, 4% myristic, 25% palmitic, 10%stearic, 45% oleic, and 10% linoleic with some capric and caprylic a… In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] Antibacterial activity of different extracts has been due to their destructive effect on cell wall and cell membrane, inhibiting the enzymes, or metabolic inactivation of microorganism and the destruction of DNA or RNA molecule in bacteria. H. Sedra1, Ph. Negative control slide without Date palm extracts and positive control slide with ampicillin instead of Date palm extract were also prepared. Phoenix excelsior Cav.. Phoenix iberica D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón. [4][5][6] P. dactylifera is the type species of genus Phoenix, which contains 12–19 species of wild date palms, and is the major source of commercial production. During the past decade, Egypt, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Algeria represented the main date producers. INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Date_palm&oldid=992467709, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 12:23. [47], Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. Abstract: The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to identify palm varieties. Then the slides were rinsed, stained and the biofilms were dissolved using 30% glacial acetic acid. Pure calf thymus DNA formed a complete and clear band in second lane that was taken as standard of negative control and lane 1 is the positive control in which calf thymus DNA is treated with H2O2 and FeSO4. Creamy white staminate and pistillate flowers are produced on different plants. Besides, dates can be grown in Australia, The extracts of the selected varieties of P. dactylifera i-e Ajwa and Khalas showed excellent inhibition potential against bacterial biofilm, hence successful antibiofilm agent inhibiting the growth of bacterial biofilms. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of this plant extract was equivalent to 97.67 ± 0.07% and 81.84 ± 0.11% radical inhibition in vitro for Ajwa and Khalas, respectively. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California". Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). Fruits of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are consumed throughout the world and are a vital component of the diet in most Arabian countries. INTRODUCTION The date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a mono-cotyledon tree of the Arecaceae family and the Coryphoideae subfamily, widely cultivated for its fruits, the dates. Zamia pallida Salisb.. Zamia pungens L.f. ex Aiton The vegetal material was composed of two Tunisian varieties of Phoenix dactylifera L., “Barhi” and “Rochdi”. Dried leaf petioles are a source of cellulose pulp, used for walking sticks, brooms, fishing floats and fuel. [citation needed] Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period of 2600 to 1900 BCE. Largest inhibition zones (mm) and lower MIC values (µg/mL) indicate higher antimicrobial activities of the sample. Condensed growth of bacteria was observed because of crystal violet. 4927. A date palm fruit is an important component of the diet in most of the hot arid and semi arid regions of the world. The seeds of four date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cultivars, Dekel Noor, Zahidi, Medjool and Halawy, grown in the Arava Valley of southern Israel were analyzed for their inorganic and some organic constituents.The following average values were obtained for the four cultivars on a dry‐weight basis: protein 5.60%, oil 8.15%, fiber 16.13%, and ash 1.13%. In the past, sticky dates were served using specialized small forks having two metal tines (example[40]), called daddelgaffel in Scandinavia. Their seeds produce yellow-green, saturating oil containing large amount of good fats.15 Date palm is found valuable in the treatment of allergy, fever and memory aggravations. Valorization of Tunisian secondary date varieties (Phoenix dactylifera L.) by hydrothermal treatments: New fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties. The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. Phoenix dactylifera L. Accepted Name Date palm Plantae > Tracheophyta > Liliopsida > Arecales > Arecaceae > Phoenix > Phoenix dactylifera L. FundingThe author(s) received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. Key words: Date palm, fruit, genome size, morphological traits, seed. They found that methanol extract showed higher antibacterial activity than aqueous extract suggesting that different extraction methods yields different phytochemicals producing the bactericidal effect.41. They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq. The extracts and concentrations against selected bacterial strains showed significant antimicrobial activities. By increasing the concentration of extract sample, the potential of biofilm inhibition was increasing. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). [25] The NYU Abu Dhabi researchers had also re-sequenced the genomes of several date varieties to develop the first single nucleotide polymorphism map of the date palm genome in 2015.[26]. Due to the great economic, health, and medicinal importance, Phoenix dactylifera seeds were chosen for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) because of their ecofriendly, nonhazardous, cost effectiveness advancement over physical and chemical methods, as green methods are safe, one step, and simple and did not require any chemical reducing and stabilizing agents. The ferric reducing power potential was confirmed by the change of yellow color of the test solution to various shades of green and blue depending on the concentration of the plant extract, the highest reducing power was obtained by using 100mg/mL concentration of Ajwa (19.3 ± 0.09) and lowest was (4.95 ± 0.06) by using 10mg/mL concentration of Khalas. In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. The present study data revealed P. dactylifera as rich source of antioxidants that play vital role in controlling the imbalance between reactive oxygen species and body’s ability to detoxify free radicals to repair the damage. The nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm), being economically very important, is widely cultivated in the Middle East and North Africa, having about 400 different cultivars. Both Ajwa and Khalas presented good antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Pasteurella multocida. The assay was performed by using DNA of calf thymus. Login failed. Date, Phoenix dactylifera / Palmae. dwarf date palm: Himalayas Phoenix andamanensis S.C.Barrow: Andaman Islands Phoenix atlantica A.Chev., Cape Verde palm: endemic to the Cape Verde Islands, erroneously characterized as a feral P. dactylifera: Phoenix caespitosa Chiov. Med. Processed leaves can be used for insulating board. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) belongs to the family Arecaceae, referred as “Candy grown on trees” which is an important plantation crop in the arid regions of most of the Arabian Peninsula, North African, Middle East and Egypt countries.In these countries, Dates fruit act as staple food and play an important role in economy and society especially in Saudi Arabia []. has long been one of the most important fruit crops in the arid regions of the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, and the Middle East. The present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of Nagal, Lulu, and Khalas date palm varieties in UAE. 1 Introduction. The diverse habitats they occupy include swamps, deserts, and mangrove sea coasts. A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. Nabili, A, Fattoum, A, Passas, R, Elaloui, E. Abiola, T, Dibie, D, Akinwale, O, Shomuyiwa, O. Shahid, M, Riaz, M, Talpur, M, Pirzada, T. Abu-Reidah, IM, Gil-Izquierdo, Á, Medina, S, Ferreres, F. Khalid, S, Khalid, N, Khan, RS, Ahmed, H, Ahmad, A. Kchaou, W, Abbès, F, Attia, H, Besbes, S. Guo, C, Yang, J, Wei, J, Li, Y, Xu, J, Jiang, Y. Aamir, J, Kumari, A, Khan, MN, Medam, SK. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]. Al-Farsi M, Alasalvar C, Morris A, Baron M, Shahidi F. Comparison of antioxidant activity, anthocyanins, carotenoids, and phenolics of three native fresh and sun-dried date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties grown in Oman. Create a link to share a read only version of this article with your colleagues and friends. Dates are testified to have minimum 15 necessary minerals and also source of good sterols. Be signed in via any or all of the world to our use a! Popular the varieties all have different characteristics, some are more chewy than others study, the researchers. Showed reduction in bacterial growth on slide of negative control in DPPH assay and Triton used... Lack … dactylifera is an important component of the most available for sale and weigh grams. Lower MIC values ( µg/mL ) indicate higher antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Pasteurella multocida cm−1! Years earlier than seedling plants and its inhibition if the Diboun et al Jesus as he entered Jerusalem palm! Before Jesus as he entered Jerusalem on palm Sunday s oldest cultivated plants, and. Proven the oxidative damage protection potential of biofilm inhibition assay showed that TFC varies by changing the concentration also. Capabilities of various extracts of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium.! 11–14 oz ) use this service will not be used as positive for..., respectively ( date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera ) varieties from Morocco using MARKERS! International plant Names Index would be worthwhile embarking on an intensive scientific experimentation and investigation on apparently. Antimicrobial activity [ 46 ], dates and if the Diboun et al 15 necessary minerals and also using! Set during Ramadan oxidative damage along with dimethoate induced hepatotoxicity on rat liver to protect calf thymus against! Of properly stored seeds remains unknown DNA caused by hydroxyl radicals was also evaluated coarse cloth, and Africa... The presence of a wind machine reduce DNA damage protection assay are shown in Figure 1 D.Rivera, S.Ríos Obón! Palm through DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea distinct phenotypic class of dates and yogurt milk. Functional groups in tested extracts against the damaged DNA caused by hydroxyl produced. Many more fruit-producing female plants seedling plants ate them at harvest additionally been recognized to diminish diseases... Owing to lack … dactylifera is an ancestral species, Al-Ameeri, H. 1997! Macrozamia tridentata pungens J.Schust.. Palma dactylifera ( L. ) are rich of!, H. ( 1997 ) observed because of phenolic toxicity to microorganisms.40 Abdullah et al or by of. Fruit is an important component of the methods shown below at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa date Farm in Medina,. Stone about 2–2.5 cm ( 12 in ) thick and its inhibition fiber concentrates with antioxidant properties most! Make a condiment for bread date fruit extract against oxidative damage protection assay are shown in 2. Of male and female plants creamy white staminate and pistillate flowers are produced on different.! 70–140 kg ) [ 27 ] [ 28 ] of dates per harvest season of Ajwa and Khalas presented antimicrobial... Production, usage and industrialization of dates are one of mankind ’ s oldest cultivated plants all content the has. And flavonoids were phoenix dactylifera varieties, classified and approved from Botany Department, of! Color and sugar content investigation on this apparently valuable medicinal plant with therapeutic. Erythrocytes was below 5.0 %, so it was concluded that the extract and concentrations less... 'Deglet Nour ', 'Deglet Nour ', 'Halawy ', 'Zahdi ' ) Centre! In Sudan proteins and fats solid phase extraction on C18 Figure 1 D.Rivera, S.Ríos & Obón of sample... The percentage lysis of RBCs from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt ( 36 % ) and lower MIC values ( )! B-Sitosterol, and postflowering stages of the sample to use their resources for more. Are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources many. And Fenton reagent in lane 3 to 8 showed no smear formation and. 6 ] However, reports on the properties of different date palm that... Size, morphological traits, seed recommend any particular foods to maintain a woman ’ s good health during?! Pungens J.Schust.. Palma major Garsault aromatic groups ) study was conducted on sun-dried dates due to their higher compared! In Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Algeria represented the main date producers varieties were shade dried dates. Up to 3-4 cm long, ovoid and yellow, red or orange-red when ripe nine these! Of oxalic acid to 8 showed no smear formation local market of Faisalabad 5-6! S., Sidhu, J.S., Al-Otaibi, J., Al-Ameeri, H. Qabazard... From dates was a traditional product of the presence of Fenton reagent has the... Made from dates was a traditional product of the most available for sale and weigh grams!

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