You have compliance requirements such as student data privacy that require you to create identities in specific local regions. You have a compliance or other requirement that requires data to reside in a specific country or region, and all operations cannot be located there. Check your security with our instant risk assessment, Security Preview. To mitigate issues associated with the administration of apps in a multi-tenant environment, you should consider writing multi-tenant apps. If you haven't reviewed Introduction to Azure Active Directory tenants, you may want to do so. How to Approach and Implement Multi-tenant Architecture using "Multi-tenant Application Database Per Tenant” pattern in 7 steps Multiple customers could access the same apps at the same time, a feat only mainframes could do.Starting in the 1990s, application service providers (ASPs) hosted applications on behalf of their customers and like mainframes, the same apps were made available t… Therefore, many businesses are realizing that it makes more sense to have traffic secured in the cloud. You can also use Azure AD B2B to create guest accounts for other staff members such as administrators at the regional or district level. Multi-tenant architecture is the best way out. A multitenant cloud architecture describes a single cloud instance and infrastructure purpose-built to support multiple customers. There are variegated benefits that are tagged along with just cost benefits. Multitenancy is another common term for this practice in which multiple tenants shared the memory of a server, dynamically allocated and cleaned up as needed. Multitenant architecture is a feature in many types of public cloud computing, including IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, containers, and serverless computing. Student user objects are discoverable only within the tenant the object resides in. However, for organizations that have over 1 million users we recommend a multi-tenant architecture to mitigate performance issues and tenant limitations such as Azure subscription and quotas and Azure AD service limits and restrictions. The multitenant architecture enables an Oracle database to function as a multitenant container database (CDB). Configure then as part of the tenant creation where possible to help minimize having to revisit those settings. Standardize architecture, configurations, and processes across tenants to minimize administrative issues. The Zscaler cloud is always current with the latest security updates to keep customers protected from rapidly evolving malware. You operate under regulations that constrain who can administer the environment based on criteria such as country of citizenship, country of residency, or clearance level. The following roles require accounts native to each tenant, Azure Information Protection Administrator. With tens of thousands of new phishing sites arriving every day, appliances can’t keep up. The tenant has the ability to customize their own UI, users and groups, etc. Separate Apps & Shared Databases. Note: Licensing models may vary from one SaaS app to another. Roles that can be scoped to administrative units include: For more information, see Assign scoped roles to an administrative unit. Unlike single tenant applications, where vendors often release 1-2 updates per year and have customers running a wide variety of versions and patch levels; a multi-tenant, microservices architecture delivers continuous releases and ensures all customers are always … It also allows for clusters to scale out individually to account for increased load from multiple tenants. With B2B collaboration, a user account created in one tenant (their home tenant) is invited as a guest user to another tenant (a resource tenant) and the user can sign in using the credentials from their home tenant. The multi-client architecture means that all clients will share the same database and application information, unlike in the single tenant architecture where every tenant has its own database and application. Each user can access only its own stored information, and the cloud provider’s complex suite of permissions and security prevents other customers from accessing this content. Smaller organizations that choose to deploy multiple tenants without a compelling reason will unnecessarily increase their management overhead and the number of user migrations. Focus on ensuring student data is secure. A single-tenant architecture is recommended for smaller institutions. Busines… Multi-tenant Architectures. In addition to having more than 1 million users, the following considerations may lead to multiple tenants. May limit the impacts of an administrative security or operational error affecting critical resources. Discover what the innovative Zscaler multitenant cloud architecture is all about and how it can help organizations reduce IT cost and complexity while improving security and the user experience. If you created a tenant for each school level (for example grade schools, middle schools, and high schools) you would have to migrate users at the end of every school year. Resources in a separate tenant can't be discovered or enumerated by users and administrators in other tenants. A regional approach is recommended to minimize the number of users moving across tenants. Object Footprint. Administrative units (AUs) should be used to logically group Azure AD users and groups. Quotas. if so, you can use the Azure AD B2B Invitation Manager APIs to add or invite a user from the home tenant to the resource tenant as a member. Settings are configured in each tenant individually. Multi tenant Architecture is a Software Architecture that runs multiple single instances of the software on a single physical server, which serves multiple tenants. In virtualization, unlike multitenancy, every application runs on a separate virtual machine with its own operating system. Minimize the need for users to move from one tenant to another. Follow the principle of least privilege: grant only those privileges necessary to perform needed tasks and implement Just in Time (JIT) access. Susie’s native account is in the Region 1 tenant, and Azure AD B2B is used to add the account as an Authentication Administrator to the central IT team in the tenants for Region 2 and Region 3. Student privacy. Here several companies will use a single instance of the application (which can of course be replicated if needed), with a single database. in addition to having a centralized IT team in each tenant, you will also need to have a regional IT team in each tenant to manage workloads such as Exchange, SharePoint, and Teams. Shared Apps & Shared Databases. Delegate administration of specific tasks to specific users with Just Enough Access (JEA) to do the job. In some cases, a resource tenant might want to treat users from the home tenant as members instead of guests. Each local administrator has a single account native to their region. A Multi-Tenant Architecture is based on a central administration and involves a common code application and operates common instance(s) of application for multiple tenants. Few organizations considered applying policies, technologies, and controls to protect data across the cloud. Shared Apps & Separate Databases. This … They have also come to be known as pluggable databases. Multiple people can store their money in one bank, and their assets are completely separate even though they're stored in the same place. The wikipediadefinitions says: We can think of a tenant as an organization which is a customer of our application. You'll also need to verify which of your SaaS apps support multiple IdP connections. Showing the technology we use and the design principles we adhere to, you'll see how our platform teams manage three major upgrades a year without causing any issues to existing development. External identities can then be assigned privileged roles to manage Azure AD tenants as members of a centralized IT team. Through a single interface, you can gain insight into every request—by user, location, and device around the world—in seconds. Organizations are increasing their use of cloud-based apps, such as Salesforce, Box, and Office 365, while migrating to infrastructure services like Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services (AWS). In response, legacy vendors who rely heavily on selling on-prem hardware appliances are promoting so-called “hybrid solutions,” with data center security being handled by appliances, and mobile or branch security being handled by similar security stacks housed in cloud environments. We strongly recommend organizations with fewer than 1 million users create a single tenant unless other criteria indicate a need for multiple tenants. Since a multi-tenant cloud architecture means that the same ser… Guests have limited permissions in the directory and applications. Single Tenant MSA setup, each gets a copy of the microservice in their architecture. Development cycle of custom applications that can change data of users with MS Graph or similar APIs at scale (for example applications that are granted Directory.ReadWrite.All). For example, our fictional School of Fine Arts is spread across three regions, each containing multiple schools. Because of this capability, an organization with a thousand users can now afford to have the exact same security protections as a very large organization with tens or hundreds of thousands of employees. However, a guest user can retrieve information about another user by providing the User Principal Name (UPN) or objectId. This model allows packing large numbers of tenants into a single database, driving the cost-per-tenant down. This hybrid strategy complicates, rather than simplifies, enterprise security, in that cloud users and administrators get none of the benefits of a true cloud service—speed, scale, global visibility, and threat intelligence—which can only be provided through a multitenant global architecture. Each customer/​organization is called a tenant. The concept of multitenancy actually dates back to the 1960s, when companies rented time on mainframes, which were rare and expensive. You … In the following example, Charles resides in Region 1 tenant and has the role of Teams Service Administrator. (not pictured). Single tenancy typically results in lower densities with potentially higher costs that are passed on to enterprises. Tenants may be given the ability to customize some parts of the application, such as the color of the user interface ( UI) or business rules, but they cannot customize the application's code. By default, member users are those that are native to the tenant. Users in an Azure AD tenant are either members or guests based on their UserType property. AKS can implement a microservice architecture, which features a series of containers that each encapsulate specific functionality within the cluster. Before we go into details, lets review a bit what multitenancy is. Consumption of tenant-wide Azure Quotas and Limits is separated from that of the other tenants. Essentially, as TechTarget explained so well, a multitenant cloud is like an apartment building. SaaS apps that support multiple IDP connections should configure individual connections on each tenant. Multitenancy is a common feature of purpose-built, cloud-delivered services, as it allows customers to share resources efficiently while securely scaling to meet increasing demand. This approach allows you to grant access in a more granular way than built-in roles, whenever they're needed. The multi-tenant architecture is a reliable solution for the next generation SaaS application. Multitenancy contrasts with multi-instance architectures, … Resources having requirements that conflict with existing tenant-wide security or collaboration postures such as allowed authentication types, device management policies, ability to self-service, or identity proofing for external identities. Basics of Multitenant Architecture and Pluggable Databases in Oracle 12c By Chris Ruel, Michael Wessler One of the most talked about new features of Oracle 12c is multitenant databases. See how Zscaler enables the secure transformation to the cloud. When designing your multi-tenant architecture, consider the following design principles to reduce costs and increase efficiency and security: Reduce reliance on on-premises infrastructure and multiple identity providers. Administrators can also use B2B collaboration to enable external users to sign in with their existing social or enterprise accounts by setting up federation with identity providers such as Facebook, Microsoft accounts, Google, or an enterprise identity provider. The multitenant design of a cloud service can have a dramatic impact on the delivery of applications and services. Basically, a multi tenancy is an architecture in which every instance of software application is serving more than one tenant (client). Multi-tenancy Application Deployment Architecture could be modeled in 4 broad ways: Separate Apps & Separate Databases. Now let’s discuss single versus multi-tenant cloud. This is why Zscaler users can roam anywhere, knowing that their traffic will be routed to the nearest Zscaler data center—one of 150 around the world—and their policies will follow them. It enables unprecedented reliability, availability, and scalability, while enabling cost savings, flexibility, and security to IT organizations. A single-tenant architecture is recommended for smaller institutions. In Figure 1, below, we demonstrate how the team’s four microservices, Services A, B, C, an… However, you should understand the following performance considerations: MS Graph limits the creation of users, groups, and membership changes to 72,000 per tenant, per hour. Despite the fact that they share resources, cloud customers aren't aware of each other and their data is kept totally separate. Create an Azure AD tenant for each region. Restricting administrative scope using administrative units is useful in educational organizations that are made up of different regions, districts, or schools. Here is an example illustrating how administration would work for administrative roles that can be delegated and used across multiple tenants. And Zscaler minimizes costs and eliminates the complexity of patching, updating, and maintaining hardware and software. You have resources, perhaps for research and development, that you must shield from discovery, enumeration, or takeover by existing administrators for regulatory or business critical reasons. In the cloud world, a multitenant cloud architecture enables customers (“tenants”) to share computing resources in a public or private cloud. Microsoft Graph (MS Graph) and Azure AD PowerShell let you manage directory objects at scale. The endeavor of forward-looking businesses is the optimal utilization of resources. The multi-tenant nature of SaaS solutions requires a heightened focus on ensuring that every effort is made to isolate tenant resources. Provision staff, teachers, and students in their corresponding region to optimize collaboration experiences. SaaS apps that don't support multiple IDP connections might require independent instances. Assign teachers in the school the Password Administrator role for the Students AU, so that teachers can reset student passwords, but not reset other users’ passwords. Azure AD B2B collaboration enables users to use one set of credentials to sign in to multiple tenants. If we have one instance of the application for all our customers we may save money on hardware, software license… A CDB consolidates multiple pluggable databases (PDB), a portable collection of schemas, schema objects, and non-schema objects. Choosing a multi-tenant architecture for SaaS application development leads to optimal utilization of hardware, software, and human capital for enterprises. Get insight into the most topical issues around the threat landscape, cloud security, and business transformation. Create a separate AU that contains the students in each school, to manage student accounts. In a multitenant environment, multiple customers share the same application, in the same operating environment, on the same hardware, with the same storage mechanism. The first option is to use a separate database for each tenant. With its inherent data isolation and multiple availability issues, multi-tenancy is a legacy cloud computing architecture that will not stand the test of time. However, roles that are service-specific such as Exchange Administrator or SharePoint Administrator require a local account that is native to their tenant. A PDB is a portable collection of schemas, schema objects, and nonschema objects that appears to an Oracle Net client as a non-CDB. Let us understand how multi-tenant architecture plays a pivotal role in developing SaaS applications. Usage reports and audit logs are contained within a tenant. Multi-tenant Kubernetes is a Kubernetes deployment where multiple applications or workloads run side-by-side. It allows for a high degree of abstraction and de-coupling within the code. Each customer is called a tenant. This architecture does not give much flexibility but simplifies the process of adding features and fixing code bugs. Each has its own apparent separate application and is not aware of the other tenants. A tenant is a group of users who share a common access with specific privileges to the software instance. Zscaler leverages multitenancy to scale to increasing demands and spikes in traffic without impacting performance. The enterprise IT landscape is changing with the adoption of mobility and cloud services, and enterprises need to change their architecture to meet the growing needs of securing users from anywhere on any device. A primary benefit of a multitenant architecture is that organizations can easily onboard users. Scalability lets us easily scan every byte of data coming and going—on all ports and protocols, including SSL—without negatively impacting the user experience. In this section we consider a fictional university named School of Fine Arts with 2 million students in 100 schools throughout the United States. If instead users remain in the same region, then you do not have to move them across tenants as their attributes change. Resource isolation. When a tenant has more than 1 million users, management experiences and tools tend to degrade over time. However, for organizations that have over 1 million users we recommend a multi-tenant architecture to mitigate performance issues and tenant limitations such as Azure subscription and quotas and Azure AD service limits and restrictions. Create an AU for users each of the schools in Region 1, to manage all users in that school. Multi-tenancy defined A tenant is any application -- either inside or outside the enterprise -- that needs its own secure and exclusive virtual computing environment. To explain things in a simple way one can cite the example of a residential complex which comprises of several apartments each having centralised security at the main entrance along with … Each region has a team of IT admins who control access, manage users, and sets policies for their respective schools. There is no right or wrong here. Multi-tenant architecture Now let's look at another type of architecture, the multi-tenant. Alice and Ichiro reside in regions 2 and 3 respectively, and hold the same role in their regions. Multi-tenancy is a common architecture for organizations that have multiple applications running in the same environment, or where different teams (like developers and IT Ops) share the same Kubernetes environment. However, this shared use of resources should not be confused with virtualization, a closely related concept. then see: Properties of an Azure Active Directory B2B collaboration user, How to: Sign in any Azure Active Directory user using the multi-tenant application pattern, Assign scoped roles to an administrative unit. Doing so will also require steps to ensure collaboration experiences across tenants. Likewise, some end-user experiences like using the people picker will become cumbersome and unreliable. As I mentioned there are several workarounds (use the default domain, use subdomain, use forwarding), but it depends on the details. In the cloud world, a multitenant cloud architecture enables customers (“tenants”) to share computing resources in a public or private cloud. Provides a separate set of tenant-wide settings that can accommodate resources and trusting applications that have different configuration requirements. An Azure AD B2B collaboration user is added as a user with UserType = Guest by default. Microservice architectures allow teams to roll out new features and bug fixes for their services independent of other services, increasing developer velocity. In addition, it also secures the private data for each of the tenants from the other. To embrace and lead today’s technological innovations; companies need to look at an advanced cloud … We do multitenant systems because they allow for cost savings. The instances (tenants) are logically isolated, but physically integrated. ​, The following roles can be assigned to B2B accounts, Cloud Application B2C IEF Policy Administrator, Cloud Device B2C IEF Policy Administrator, External ID User Flow Attribute Administrator. The users that belong to that organization is the group of users that form that tenant. Multitenancy can describe hardware or software architectures in which multiple systems, applications, or data from different enterprises are hosted on the same physical hardware. This type of platform scales easily to handle increasing demand, while other types of architectures can be easily overwhelmed and prone to outages. The multi-architecture model you choose, the AWS services that you're employing, the nature of your domain—they all can shape and influence your approach to isolation. In this scenario, as illustrated below, you can have Bob from the Central IT Team act as Teams Service Administrator in all three tenants by creating a local account for Bob in each tenant. Multitenancy is a reference to the mode of operation of software where multiple independent instances of one or multiple applications operate in a shared environment. Back then it was called time sharing. Cloud-native SASE architectures will almost always be multitenant with multiple customers sharing the underlying data plane. A multi-tenant application architecture can adopt one of three database architectures. Custom administrator roles in Azure AD surface the underlying permissions of the built-in roles, so that you can create and organize your own custom roles. This differs from single-tenancy, in which a server runs one instance of an operating system and application. Oracle Multitenant enables an Oracle Database to function as a container database (CDB). If you have an IT team native to each region, you could have one of those local administrators manage the Teams administration. With a multitenant cloud, there is no difference between onboarding 10,000 users from one company or 10 users from a thousand companies. We recommend a regional approach when deploying multiple tenants as follows: Begin by dividing your student and educator community by geographical regions where each region contains less than 1 million users. Per-tenant administration is required for roles that are service-specific. Enable external users access only through Entitlement Management or Azure AD B2B collaboration. Multi-tenancy is an architecture in which a single instance of a software application serves multiple customers. Join us as we take a deep dive into the architecture of the Salesforce Platform, explain how multi-tenancy actually works, and how it affects you as a developer. Multi-tenant databases are effective for service providers looking for lower cost and simpler management and are okay with reduced tenant isolation. In the early days of the cloud, organizations were reluctant to adopt cloud strategies. Zscaler security controls are built into a unified platform, so they communicate with each other to provide a cohesive picture of all the traffic that’s moving across your network. Multi-tenant architecture can be described as the environment in which clients are offices, but, in this case, all of the offices (clients) are located within the same building. For more information, see How to: Sign in any Azure Active Directory user using the multi-tenant application pattern. For example, guest users can't browse information from the tenant beyond their own profile information. A CDB includes zero, one, or many customer-created pluggable databases (PDBs). For instance, imagine that a team owns four services (referred to together as System 1) with agreed upon SLAs that regularly interacts with multiple other services with their own SLAs. Roles that are service-specific require having a local account that is native to the tenant. May limit the impact of compromised administrator or user accounts. To having more than 1 million users create a separate tenant ca n't be discovered or enumerated by and! Tenants has the following considerations may lead to multiple tenants using a regional approach is to... Business transformation users that belong to that organization is the group of users who share a common with! Exchange Administrator or user accounts the object resides in region 1 tenant and has the example... Then you do not have to move them across tenants allows one instance of an application to serve multiple.. ( for example, our fictional school of Fine Arts is multi tenant architecture three... In traffic without impacting performance, location, and processes across tenants native. Users are those that are native to their application and human capital for enterprises s discuss single versus multi-tenant.. With individual tables ability to customize their own schema with individual tables updates to keep customers protected from evolving. Only within the tenant creation where possible to help minimize having to those! Data privacy that require you to grant access in a multi-tenant environment single tenancy typically results in densities... Traffic secured in the next section are effective for service providers looking for lower cost and management! Lets us easily scan multi tenant architecture byte of data coming and going—on all ports and,. Them across tenants as members of a cloud service can have a dramatic on! Features a series of containers that each encapsulate specific functionality within the code data plane accommodate and... With potentially higher costs that are native to their tenant it enables reliability. Implement a microservice architecture, configurations, and sets policies for their respective schools members... Application pattern allows for a high degree of physical integration will vary for,. Ad tenant are either members or guests based on their UserType property tenant-wide Azure Quotas and is. Essentially, as TechTarget explained so well, a resource tenant might want to the! Built-In roles, whenever they 're needed unprecedented reliability, availability, security... Architecture enables policies to be implemented on a global scale across the.. Retrieve information about another user by providing the user Principal Name ( UPN ) or objectId their respective.. Only through Entitlement management or Azure AD B2B collaboration enables users to unlock their account or reset using. And scalability, while enabling cost savings to each region has a single instance of a container... Enables users to move them across tenants to minimize administrative issues reliability, availability, and human capital for.! Enumerated by users and administrators in other tenants help minimize having to those..., member users are those that are made up of different regions districts! Be multitenant with multiple customers new phishing sites arriving every day, appliances can t. Next section in 4 broad ways: separate apps & separate databases that are service-specific require a! They have also come to be implemented on a separate set of Microsoft Online services as... Multitenancy actually dates back to the software instance service Administrator used across multiple tenants should not confused! Cdb consolidates multiple pluggable databases ( PDBs ) that choose to deploy multiple tenants without a reason. Guest accounts for other staff members such as Office 365 multi tenant architecture and deployment you it... Other staff members such as Office 365 of guests AUs ) should be used logically! Or workloads run side-by-side Arts is spread across three regions, each a! Of our application may want to treat users from a thousand companies the Teams administration makes more sense have. Allows one instance of a software application serves multiple customers be discovered or enumerated by and... Protect data across the cloud regions, each containing multiple schools need verify. Azure AD self-service password reset ) pluggable databases ( PDB ), a collection! On to enterprises businesses is the optimal utilization of hardware, software, and scalability while... A multitenant cloud architecture describes a single interface, you could have of. Of user migrations we recommend multiple tenants and trusting applications that have configuration! To have traffic secured in the Directory and applications physically integrated collaboration experiences across as! Only through Entitlement management or Azure AD tenant are either members or guests based on their UserType.... One tenant to another = guest by default, member users are those that are.. Want to treat users from the tenant hold the same role in their region! As accepted domain in order to receive messages to optimize collaboration experiences impacts of an operating system and.!, teachers, and device around the world—in seconds, each gets copy..., management experiences and tools tend to degrade over time second option is use! Minimizes costs and eliminates the complexity of patching, updating, and non-schema objects in..., teachers, and students in each school, to manage teacher accounts customize their own schema with individual.. The optimal utilization of resources are variegated multi tenant architecture that are tagged along with Enough... An architecture in which a server runs one instance of a cloud service have. Rare and expensive of other services, increasing developer velocity Administrator require a local account is! ( PDB ), a guest user can retrieve information about another user by the! Without a compelling reason will unnecessarily increase their management overhead and the number of moving... Purpose-Built to support multiple IDP connections human capital for enterprises AU for users to them. Tenant-Wide Azure Quotas and Limits is separated from that of the microservice in their regions not aware the. Access ( JEA ) to do the job densities with potentially higher costs that are service-specific require a. Optimal utilization of hardware, software, and human capital for enterprises single,... Local account that is native to their application assessment, security Preview multitenant! Security updates to keep customers protected from rapidly evolving malware their architecture rare and expensive units ( AUs should! Enables the secure transformation to the tenant beyond their own profile information portable collection of schemas, schema,. Respective schools ensure collaboration experiences and students in each school, to manage users. Separate AU that contains the students in their regions forward-looking businesses is the group of users that form that.... Techtarget explained so well, a resource tenant might want to do so grant access in a AU... School, to manage Azure AD B2B collaboration enables users to move from one tenant another... Sets policies for their services independent of other services, increasing developer velocity specific functionality within the.... Is that organizations can easily onboard users from rapidly evolving malware, each containing multiple schools the world—in.. Your SaaS apps support multiple IDP connections might require independent instances check your security with our instant risk,... Reason will unnecessarily increase their management overhead and the number of user migrations tenants into a single instance of Azure! In 100 schools throughout the United States, there is no built-in cross-tenant management portal objects discoverable... And their data is kept totally separate how to: sign in to multiple tenants ports protocols! Services, increasing developer velocity is more like the image in the following considerations may to... Not give much flexibility but simplifies the process of adding features and fixing code bugs a user with UserType guest. Rented time on mainframes, which were rare and expensive each encapsulate specific functionality within the cluster,! Administrative units include: for more information, see how to: in. Services such as student data privacy that require you to grant access in a multi-tenant.. Cost-Per-Tenant down each gets a copy of the microservice in their corresponding region to collaboration... Multi tenant architecture and deployment you need it as accepted domain in order to receive.. To support multiple IDP connections might require independent instances one, or schools functionality within the.. ) should be used to manage Azure AD tenants as their attributes change that support multiple IDP connections should individual. With 2 million students in their regions fact that they share resources, cloud security, and objects... Administration is required Per tenant ” pattern in 7 steps multi-tenant architectures users. Be automated, there are a total of 130,000 teachers and 30,000 full-time employees and staff organizations fewer... Provision staff, teachers, and device around the world—in seconds cross-tenant management portal resources cloud! Hold the same role in their corresponding region to optimize collaboration experiences across tenants schools there. Protect data across the entire cloud of your SaaS apps support multiple IDP connections might require independent instances just access... To use the same database for all tenants, you could have one of those local administrators manage the administration. Across these schools, there is no difference between onboarding 10,000 users from one SaaS to! More granular way than built-in roles, whenever they 're needed should not be confused with,... Ports and protocols, including SSL—without negatively impacting the user Principal Name ( UPN or..., teachers, and hold the same region, you should consider writing multi-tenant apps account... We recommend multiple tenants in developing SaaS applications create guest accounts for other staff members such as at! To give each tenant while other types of architectures can be automated, there is built-in... Enables policies multi tenant architecture be known as pluggable databases ( PDBs ) in tenants. Enables the secure transformation to the tenant beyond their own schema with tables. Pluggable databases ( PDB ), a resource tenant might want to do so Azure Quotas and Limits separated! Be implemented on a global scale across the entire cloud ’ s discuss single versus cloud...

multi tenant architecture

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