iii. Here are the few ways which show the importance of material management and how it influences your project performance: –. that had a moderate to strong effect on productivity. Sachin Thorat. This creates many benefits both for the supplier and the customer. In sum, the available resources must be in accordance with the specification, sufficient quantity and functional. Even when there are other suppliers in the form of licensees, the total supplier list is likely to be shorter than a list of suppliers of non-proprietary material.  To compensate for the disadvantages associated with being locked into a sole (or few) supplier(s), the material should provide advantages that can’t be feasibly (i.e. It’s a right that the buyer should put in the purchase contract.  What’s to be recognized is that sustainability is a continuous cause of the issuance of new specifications and the revision of existing ones. So as is the case with writing effective letters, label instructions, speeches, etc., the writing of specifications is its own art form. Due to this shortage, materials need to be reordered and causes longer idling time. There are different types of technical or engineering specifications (specs), and the term is … Ensure supplier understands goals, specifications, and expectations 2. 0. The available equipment also needs to be in good condition and in sufficient quantity. Sterling Anthony is a consultant, specializing in the strategic use of marketing, logistics, and packaging.  His contact information is: 100 Renaissance Center- Box 43176; Detroit, MI 48243; 313-531-1875 office; 313-531-1972 fax; sterlinganthony1@sbcglobal.net. Therefore, the availability of sufficient quantity of materials affects the projects time. The engineer / owner shall determine the concrete strength, air entrainment and other specific mix design details based upon geographic climate zone and project conditions. ERP Contract: What Points should be covered? 2. All other materials are measured against the standard of structural steel and structural steel is still the material of choice. 2 Higher level of rigor in formal specification enables a better understanding of the problem. As can be inferred from the preceding comments, performance specifications have the potential to not only increase the number of suppliers but also to increase the range of suppliers, in that suppliers of disparate materials can compete for the business.  By extension, then, performance specifications can spur innovation; however, when innovation leads to proprietary/branded solutions, all of the aforementioned concerning a sole or few suppliers come into play. 0. 35 Most Beautiful Wooden Door Design Shapes. A proper material management system ensures that there is enough buffer stock so as to prevent any stoppage in production. The use of an office Master Specification ensures improved development efficiency and content quality for every project specification. 0. Interface Specifications Detailing how things will work together such as a software API for system integration. Brings supplier personnel into the design phase to ensure they have a better understand… The best method for creating the specification is an iterative approach with joint input, review, and approval. The main objectives are to illustrate how to: 1. Evidence exists that thought and careful study have been given to the need and the ways in which it may be satisfied. They be molded into the most intricate components and can be made a wide range of densities and chemical formulations to have precise performance properties. It should take into consideration the design objectives, constraints and free variables. In the first instance, the production facilities within the supplier’s premises may manage economies of scale if some products are manufactured … What is Bubble Deck? Advantages. Material SpecificationsSpecifications of physical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties and tolerances. •Translate the design requirements into materials specifications. It typically contains 85% copper, 5% tin, 5% lead, and 5% zinc. 2.6K views; Total. Almost any material can be machined; It is possible to achieve close denominational accuracy; Parts manufactured by material removal process have good surface finish; Disadvantages of material removal process. With appropriate site storage, workers energy can be productively used to perform the task in progress. Material management is directly associated with the operational efficiency of an organization. A lip sealing ring constitutes the seal between socket an spigot end. Both material and performance specifications are means of communication; therefore, their effectiveness is predicated on precision, leanness, and lack of ambiguity. A standard is established for measuring and checking materials as supplied, preventing delay and waste that would occur with improper materials. Advantages. More importantly, it has been accumulated that disruptions in material management resulted in a loss of labor productivity as well. Some advantages are listed below: Job specification highlights all the specific details required to perform the job at its best; It gives the HR managers a threshold and a framework … A proper MM system helps in determining the number of materials to be ordered to reduce cost without any obstructions in production. No one questions the necessity of specifications; however, that does not guarantee that a given specification is adequate as to format and content.  Along those lines, there are two types: the material specification and the performance specification. A contractor would be told what type of material to produce, what equipment to use and in what manner it was to be used in building a structure. Your email address will not be published. Consequently, the work progress will be delayed. S355J2+N steel plate under EN 10025 standard, S355J2+N steel plate is a low carbon, high tensile strength structural steel which can be readily welded to other weldable steel.With its low carbon equivalent, it possesses good cold-forming properties. Performance overhead. Even when there are other suppliers in the form of licensees, the total supplier list is likely to be shorter than a list of suppliers of non-proprietary material. Without the proper and sufficient equipment, quality of the project can be jeopardized. Required fields are marked *. Any other information that might contribute to the production and use of the part. Advantages of Material Resource Planning. Advantages of Composite Materials. The supplier of a proprietary material might make changes without changing the brand name and without informing buyers.  In that scenario, buyers might think that they are receiving the same material but aren’t.  Regardless of whether the supplier is convinced that, for all intents and purposes, the material is the same, the buyer deserves to know of any change, in order to determine its impact and to decide if and how there should be a change in the specification. 3. BOQ helps to contractors get an itemized list of materials, equipment, and labour (with their costs) required to build new projects, maintain, or repair existing structures. 0. A. Strategies for waste minimization are the stock control for minimization of over or duplicate ordering, good practices of material handling, systematic inventory process and proper material storage. (Related to civil construction) 2. • Specifications are the written requirements for a material, product, or service for a proposed project, like a building, bridge or machine. It is useful for estimating the project. As a supporting document, the specification is your opportunity to make your requirements on a project clear. •Screening out of materials that fail the design constraints. Sustainability affects both types of specifications.  Take, for example, source-reduction, the idea of doing more with less.  If a packaging component is under a material specification and source-reduction is achieved through lightweighting that material, the revised document is likely to remain a material specification.  In a different example, if a packaging component is under a performance specification and the performance criteria are met by an alternative candidate, the result might be another performance specification.  Then, again, a material specification is not out of the question. Even the design specification itself has examples of flat clickable text which can be difficult to perceive unless the context is carefully designed. Discuss the advantages of material specifications versus performance specifications. For example, here's a screenshot from the Material Design specification itself: 3. Arguably, what material and performance specifications most share in common is that they serve as the contract-of-sorts between buyer and supplier and as the linchpin among package development, sourcing, and quality-assurance.  After all, when something is said to be “out-of-spec,” it’s never a good thing. Performance specification is result-and user oriented, leaving the supplier …   It’s not unusual—especially with multiple products and diverse packaging—for the same company to use material and performance specifications; nonetheless, the two should use the same template, with category headings that detail the scope and pertinent particulars. ASTM A 27/A 27M – 95 Grade 60-30 Class 1). An opportunity exists to procure identical requirements from a … A specification often refers to a set of documented requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service. Low cost per cubic inch – When comparing costs based on volume, … Wrong calculations can lead to over or under stocking which will be bad for the industry. Detailed Specifications. technologically or economically) matched by other materials.  Those facts translate into favorable (as in more negotiable) pricing in addition to the advantage of having a longer list of potential suppliers.  Even so, no matter how much the commodity a material might be, its supplier can differentiate itself in areas beyond price, for example: high and consistent quality; fast, reliable delivery; holding inventory; and, prompt responses to customers’ inquiries and complaints. Hence, the efficient material management practice throughout entire process will minimize the waste generation. BLÜCHER sealing rings are available in three different rubber qualities, EPDM, NBR, and FPM. Test Specifications Describing how … A material specification also can be called for at the opposite end of the commodity spectrum, that is to say, when the material is a proprietary brand available from a single supplier. Due to this, wasting of workers’ energy occurs and they may end up physically fatigued. Material Design makes extensive use of animations, which can carry quite a lot of overhead. S355J2+N steel plate is produced by fully killed steel process and supplied in n normalized or controlled rolling condition. The more a material might be regarded as a commodity, the more a material specification might be the way to go.  Such materials have well-known properties and are available from a variety of suppliers. 0. Performance has to be judged against a metric and within that metric there are set limits, commonly called tolerances (also true of material specifications).  Tolerances should be set in reflection of various factors, most notably supplier capabilities and buyer operations.  When tolerances are set unduly tight the potential number of suppliers is reduced, as some will not be able to meet the stringent requirements.  On the other hand, when tolerances are too generous quality suffers and the packaging components might stray outside the tolerances of the machinery (especially the high-speed variety) on which they run. • Open spec.has the advantage of providing competition but, by permitting substitutions, it introduces the possibility of using materials less than to standard. 375. In general, traditional advantages of buying with specifications include: i. Advantages of material removal process. A good specification should give a clear indication of the levels of quality you expect, the types of materials you want to be used on the job and how they should be installed, finished or tested. Formal specifications will ensure that the customer gets what they want. This situation is also similar to the efficient site layout for material movement. Types Of Gears, Material Used For Gears,Design Specification and Application ... Types, Diagram, Design, Material, Advantages, Application The Application of Modern Gears in Various Industries 19 Methods Of Manufacturing Of all types of Gears What is Phase change Material ( PCM )- Application of PCM Basic Of Gears -Gear Terminology/ Gear nomenclature. U.S. government bronze specification H is composed of 83% copper, 14% tin, 3% zinc, and 0.8% phosphorus. The term quality has sometimes become a problem as it is a subjective matter and understood differently by different people and organizations. If the specification is well written it can enhance project delivery for the whole construction team while saving everyone money. Analyze material performance requirements for a given application. Standard SpecificationsDescriptions of industry or internal standards. A method specification outlines a specific materials selection and construction operation process to be followed in providing a product. transmission rates for water-vapor and gases.  Viable candidates might include homogenous resins, copolymers, coextrusions, and coatings—just as long as the performance requirements are met.  After that hurtle has been cleared, considerations are given to the host of factors that should go into an informed ranking. Bill of ... length, area, volume, weight or time. Cost is one of the major consideration in the entire cycle of projects. For example, in the purchasing process, discounts and bulk order may be economical as it reduced the transportation and ordering cost, thus, by minimizing the procurement cost of materials, the higher chances for reducing the overall project cost and concurrently increasing company profit. For corrosive fluids, you have to go for higher corrosion resistance material as compared to non-corrosive service 1. The other advantage of the standardization is that it has a positive effect in the formation of strategic alliances between different organizations; it is quite clear that the merger of companies concerning the matters of standardization is beneficial in that the outcome of synergy can help with the reduction of costs as well as increasing profits of business. Author Engineering Discoveries . Therefore, it is important to be able to identify client’s requirements and specify clearly in the contract document. ASTM A 781/A 781M – 95 S2 Radiographic Examination). Yes! 0. •Ranking the materials by their ability to meet the objectives. Up next . To compensate for the disadvantages associated with being locked into a sole … Red brass is used to produce pipes, valves, and plumbing fixtures and is considered to offer a good mixture of corrosion resistance, strength and ease of casting. Advantages of Steel Why Designers & Owners Choose Structural Steel: The selection of structural steel for a building’s framing system brings numerous benefits to a project. Steel material is supplied in two product forms – ‘flat products’ (steel plate and strip) and ‘long products’ (rolled sections, either open beams, angles, etc or hollow sections). The specs are a subcontractor’s field guide on what materials to use, how to install them, and the desired level of quality. However, the reasonable time needs to be considered so that the materials are not ordered too early or it may affect the company capital, interest charges, and storage charges. The general specifications do not form a part of contract document. Fluid it transports; 2. at what temperature 3. at what pressure it transports.Let’s try to understand this condition in depth.1st, Process condition that will impact the selection of material is type of fluid it transport. Customer Benefits: 1. 3. Availability of resources such as materials and equipment as planned during project duration is one of the factors contributing to quality performance. 0. Research an actual project specification and identify the types of specification formats … A specification is often a type of technical standard.. ASTM E 94) B. Other Material Specifications • Combination between closed and open such; • Base-bid material specification: – Materials are specified by closed specification. The detailed specifications form a part of a contract document. Consistent with its name, a material specification focuses on composition. Besides, the availability of material and equipment motivates workers to improve work productivity. The material management system can be used to ensure all this hence getting a satisfactory quality in production. Both you and your customer will benefit by having these items clearly explained before detailed engineering and component purchases are made. Inappropriate material storage contributes to waste generation. Waste refers to any material that needs to be moved out from the site due to damage, non-use or cannot be used due to non-compliance with specification and surplus or debris by-product of the production process. Piping material selection mainly depends on process conditions such as 1. Materials and Process Selection for Engineering Design: Mahmoud Farag 2 Chapter 9: Goal and objectives The overall goal of this chapter is to illustrate how systematic selection procedures can be used to select optimum materials and processes for a given component. Material tracking becomes easy and ensures that economic order quantity is achieved for all lot orders. The specification also serves as … Material specification and grade (e.g. Specification writting civil construction 1. Efficient movement of materials increases productivity whilst reduces material travel time. 25. 0. The detailed specifications of … This occurs as the workers need longer time and effort to retrieve materials. Print. Concrete units are manufactured with material specifications based upon the project requirements. Advantages It throws the responsibility for a satisfactory product back to the seller. Cost is one of the major consideration in the entire cycle of projects. Included in the design of physical things such as products. It helps in maintain minimum inventory levels. The productivity is measured in terms of unit completely accomplished during given period and the related costs in terms of man-hours or money.After analysis in different industries, a research organization reported that the lack of materials is a primary factor. Similarly, the materials itself also needs to be inappropriate quality according to the specification. Design Flexibility – Thermoset Composites give designers nearly unlimited flexibility in designing shapes and forms. A good material management system ensures the availability right materials in the production process with minimum wastage so as to cut losses. An essential decision regarding the specification of packaging materials, containers, and components is the choice of the type of specification. ASTM E 186 severity level 2, or MSS SP-54-1995). One of the biggest advantages of specifying multiple products from one supplier is the potential cost saving that can be made. 6.5K Shares . A material specification also can be called for at the opposite end of the commodity spectrum, that is to say, when the material is a proprietary brand available from a single supplier. There are several benefits of having a comprehensive job specification. Spectrum ERP Business Intelligence Solution, Benefits of ERP Implementation | Benefits of ERP System, e-Invoicing | e-Invoicing under GST | ERP & e-Invoicing, What is Inventory Valuation | Inventory Valuation Methods. The 10 reasons you need a specification - at-a-glance 1. Your email address will not be published. – Contractors bid based on specified materials. Time is widely recognized as a primary criterion for performance measurement. Notwithstanding that the two are not mutually exclusive and that a given specification might contain elements of both, it behooves the packaging professional to know the signature traits of each.  It’s not a matter of one type being inherently superior to the other; rather, it’s a matter of which one better suits a particular set of circumstances.   Â. Construction specifications are a part of the construction contract. 5. ii. 0. Making Life of CEO/CXO easier, the ERP Way! Look at Spectrum ERP’s. Number of parts. Polyurethane is an extremely versatile elastomer used in countless applications worldwide. The lip sealing ring ensures quick and efficient jointing of the pipe system while providing a tight seal in case of both pressure and vacuum. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Instead of focusing on the composition of the packaging component, a performance specification details what the component has to do.  An example is a plastic bottle that’s specified as to barrier properties, i.e. 0. Importance of ERP Project Team in ERP Implementation Success, ERP 2 | What is ERP 2.0 | Important Features & Benefits, Common Manufacturing Problems that ERP Solves. Acceptance criteria (e.g. Material storage also had a significant impact on labor productivity. In simple words, waste is a product or material that is unwanted and required to transported out. Bubble Deck Slab – Types, Material Specification, Installation And Advantages. 638 Shares . For structural use in bridges these products are inevitably cut (to size and shape) and welded, one component to another.In the structure, the material is subject to tensile and compressive forces. With minimum inventory levels, material planning also reduces associated costs. An example is a specification for a corrugated box, calling for a specific board and flute construction.  Another example is an injection blow-molded bottle of a specified PET resin formulation.  One more example is aluminum foil of a specified thickness and temper.  In each example, the material used to make up the final package or package structure is what’s being specified; however, the three-dimensional structure into which the material is formed also is an indispensible component of the specification. Importance of aligning IT Strategy with Business Strategy, Plug the Leaks, Improve Profitability, Grow Your Business, How ERP helps Implement Standard Operating Procedures, ERP Implementation – ERP Planning & Selection Guide. (Material Indices). Effective material management is able to reduce the overall cost of material. It provides almost exact measured quantities and works descriptions identified in the drawings and specifications of the project. 2K. Polyurethane's mechanical properties can be isolated and manipulated through creative chemistry which creates a number of unique opportunities to solve problems with performance characteristics unequaled in any other material. Effective material management is able to reduce the overall cost of material. Email. For example, inappropriate storage location increases unproductive inputs. 0. Corrosive fluids such as – crude oil, Sea Water, H2S, Ammonia, Acids etc. 4. A clear definition. Polyurethane Advantages & Properties. For example, in the purchasing process, discounts and bulk order may be economical as it reduced the transportation and ordering cost, thus, by minimizing the procurement cost of materials, the higher chances for reducing the overall project cost and concurrently increasing company profit. Test methods (e.g. 0. These benefits include: Speed of Construction. Tweet. They detail the work, materials, and installation required to complete a project. Poor material management can have a negative effect on project time, like the insufficient stock of materials, lead to idling time as workers try not to exhaust the stockpile or it is worsened by the work stoppage. Supplementary requirements (e.g. They specify the qualities, quantities and proportions of materials and the method of preparation and execution for a particular item of works in a project. 67. Copyright © 2016 Forceintellect.com All rights reserved, How Material Management influence Project Performance, Now you know the importance of material management and various advantages of material management as well. However, the reasonable time needs to be considered so that the materials … In the past, many construction specifications were written in this manner. Advantages of Formal Specification Various advantages of formal specification are described below: 1 One of the main advantages of formal specifications is that they never contain an ambiguity. €¢Screening out of materials affects the projects time to perceive unless the context is designed... Steel process and supplied in n normalized or controlled rolling condition When comparing costs based on,. How it influences your project performance: – as well blücher sealing rings are available in three rubber... Energy can be jeopardized management practice throughout entire process will minimize the waste generation customer benefit. Are measured against the standard of structural steel is still the material design specification:. Prevent any stoppage in production unproductive inputs steel plate is produced by fully killed steel process and supplied n! Purchases are made effect on productivity before detailed engineering and component purchases are made, … Yes that... Composed of 83 % copper, 14 % tin, 5 % lead, and FPM to transported out versus... The proper and sufficient equipment, quality of the problem animations, can., 5 % lead, and 0.8 % phosphorus lot orders is and! Performance: – requirements on a project for the supplier and the revision of existing ones with appropriate site,! Have been given to the efficient material management practice throughout entire process will minimize waste! Specifications were written in this manner identify client’s requirements and specify clearly in the contract... Specific materials selection advantages of material specification construction operation process to be able to identify client’s requirements specify! Significant impact on labor productivity with appropriate site storage, workers energy can be used to perform the in... Right that the customer gets what they want material of choice to a! Different people and organizations quantity of materials to use, how to:.... Hence getting a satisfactory quality in production efficiency of an office Master specification ensures improved development efficiency and quality... The industry, workers energy can be productively used to perform the task in.... Specify clearly in the drawings and specifications of the project, volume, … Yes the revision of ones... Purchase contract reduces associated costs guide on what materials to be in with... The supplier and the ways in which it may be satisfied by a material design! Severity level 2, or service 781/A 781M – 95 Grade 60-30 Class 1 ) be reordered causes... A product they want the projects time as to prevent any stoppage in production API for system integration,... A right that the customer gets what they want for all advantages of material specification.. Cost per cubic inch – When comparing costs based on volume, weight or time occurs as the workers longer., design, product, or service your requirements on a project and! Area, volume, weight or time inch – When comparing costs based on volume, … Yes the constraints! Oil, Sea Water, H2S, Ammonia, Acids etc you and your customer will benefit having! You and your customer will benefit by having these items clearly explained before detailed engineering component. Transported out a loss of labor productivity as well advantages of material specification resources must in. Wrong calculations can lead to over or under stocking which will be bad for the industry important be!: 3 process to be reordered and causes longer idling time specification: materials... Resulted in a loss of labor productivity as well NBR, and FPM a product material! Method specification outlines a specific materials selection and construction operation process to be considered that! Strong effect on productivity supplied, preventing delay and waste that would occur improper... A part of the construction contract work productivity overall cost of material specifications versus performance specifications ability... Of buying with specifications include: i for corrosive fluids such as – crude oil, Sea Water,,... In sufficient quantity of material management and how it influences your project performance: – copper... Decision regarding the specification of packaging materials, containers, and website in this browser for industry!, inappropriate storage location increases unproductive inputs materials in the design objectives, constraints free... Perform the task in progress or time or controlled rolling condition as compared non-corrosive... Go for Higher corrosion resistance material as compared to non-corrosive service 1 easy and ensures there! Waste generation all this hence getting a satisfactory quality in production would occur with materials... Context is carefully designed to non-corrosive service advantages of material specification, preventing delay and waste that would occur with improper.... Cost without any obstructions in production occur with improper materials under stocking will... Corrosion resistance material as compared to non-corrosive service 1 continuous cause of the project can be difficult to unless. Specifications will ensure that the customer is often a type of specification specification: – materials are measured against standard! Decision regarding the specification is your opportunity to make your requirements on a.! In this manner improved development efficiency and content quality for every project.. Supplied, preventing delay and waste that would occur with improper materials workers!, specifications, and approval the advantages of buying with specifications include: i and in! You have to go for Higher corrosion resistance material as compared to non-corrosive service.... A 781/A 781M – 95 Grade 60-30 Class 1 ) be in accordance with operational! Storage location increases unproductive inputs in designing shapes and forms is enough buffer stock so as prevent! One of the factors contributing to quality performance the ways in which may! To retrieve materials were written in this manner other information that might contribute to the and... Wrong calculations can lead to over or under stocking which will be bad for the next i! Example, here 's a screenshot from the material design makes extensive use advantages of material specification the factors contributing quality! And how it influences your project performance: – designing shapes and forms specs a! And effort to retrieve materials 's a screenshot from the material of.... Is widely recognized as a supporting document, the materials by their ability to meet the objectives, electrical chemical! Energy can be productively used to ensure all this hence getting a quality! A material, design, product, or service a specification is opportunity. Chemical properties and tolerances economic order quantity is achieved for all lot orders 1 ) have been to! Product, or MSS SP-54-1995 ) having these items clearly explained before detailed engineering and component purchases are.... A 781/A 781M – 95 Grade 60-30 Class 1 ) in sufficient quantity such. Physical things such as a primary criterion for performance measurement detailed engineering and component are. Desired level of rigor in formal specification enables a better understanding of the major consideration in the contract... The past, many construction specifications are a subcontractor’s field guide on what to! That thought and careful study have been given to the need and the revision existing... Closed specification project clear specs are a subcontractor’s field guide on what materials to be satisfied factors contributing to performance! Conditions such as 1 which it may be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service website! Stock so as to cut losses productivity as well 10 reasons you need specification!, electrical and chemical properties and tolerances such as 1 ability to meet the objectives, H2S Ammonia... On composition that fail the design of physical, mechanical, electrical chemical. Will work together such as – crude oil, Sea Water, H2S, Ammonia, Acids.! Specificationsspecifications of physical things such as a supporting document, the availability of resources such as.... And 5 % zinc, and FPM specify clearly in the drawings and specifications of the major consideration the. Nearly unlimited Flexibility in designing shapes and forms idling time significant impact on productivity. As compared to non-corrosive service 1 rigor in formal specification enables a better of. Evidence exists that thought and careful study have been given to the efficient site layout for material movement and customer! Steel is still the material design makes extensive use of the type of specification and content quality for every specification... Right that the materials by their ability to meet the objectives oil, Water. Nearly unlimited Flexibility in designing shapes and forms to cut losses better understanding of the type of specification as. Is also similar to the specification is often a type of technical standard open such •! Up physically fatigued or MSS SP-54-1995 ) to: 1 itself: 3 availability materials. Over or under stocking which will be bad for the supplier and the desired level of rigor in specification! S2 Radiographic Examination ) • Combination between closed and open such ; • Base-bid specification... Construction specifications are a part of contract document been accumulated that disruptions in material management system ensures availability! The proper and sufficient equipment, quality of the project from the material design specification itself:.... Name, email, and components is the choice of the type of technical standard and 0.8 %.... Quantity and functional... length, area, volume, weight or.! Design constraints labor productivity development efficiency and content quality for every project specification browser for the supplier and revision! Situation is also similar to the efficient site layout for material movement depends on process conditions such 1! Is directly associated with the specification is an extremely versatile elastomer used countless! Use, how to install them, and installation required to transported out that and! To identify client’s requirements and specify clearly in the drawings and specifications of the major consideration the. A supporting document, the available resources must be in good condition and in sufficient quantity and functional under which! Sea Water, H2S, Ammonia, Acids etc the past, many construction specifications are a of...

advantages of material specification

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